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Sensors 2014, 14(6), 10024-10041; doi:10.3390/s140610024
Article

Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Apparent Electrical Conductivity: DUALEM vs. Veris Sensors for Monitoring Soil Properties

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 and
Received: 6 February 2014; in revised form: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agriculture and Forestry: Sensors, Technologies and Procedures)
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Abstract: The main objective of this study was to compare two apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) sensors (Veris 2000 XA and DUALEM 1S) for mapping variability of soil properties in a Mediterranean shallow soil. This study also aims at studying the effect of soil cover vegetation on the ECa measurement by the two types of sensors. The study was based on two surveys carried out under two very different situations: in February of 2012, with low soil moisture content (SMC) and with high and differentiated vegetation development (non grazed pasture), and in February of 2013, with high SMC and with short and relatively homogeneous vegetation development (grazed pasture). The greater temporal stability of Veris sensor, despite the wide variation in the SMC and vegetation ground cover indicates the suitability of using this sensor for monitoring soil properties in permanent pastures. The survey carried out with the DUALEM sensor in 2012 might have been affected by the presence of a 0.20 m vegetation layer at the soil surface, masking the soil properties. These differences should be considered in the selection of ECa sensing systems for a particular application.
Keywords: apparent soil electrical conductivity; DUALEM sensor; soil cover vegetation; soil properties; Veris apparent soil electrical conductivity; DUALEM sensor; soil cover vegetation; soil properties; Veris
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Serrano, J.; Shahidian, S.; Silva, J.M. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Apparent Electrical Conductivity: DUALEM vs. Veris Sensors for Monitoring Soil Properties. Sensors 2014, 14, 10024-10041.

AMA Style

Serrano J, Shahidian S, Silva JM. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Apparent Electrical Conductivity: DUALEM vs. Veris Sensors for Monitoring Soil Properties. Sensors. 2014; 14(6):10024-10041.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Serrano, João; Shahidian, Shakib; Silva, José M. 2014. "Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Apparent Electrical Conductivity: DUALEM vs. Veris Sensors for Monitoring Soil Properties." Sensors 14, no. 6: 10024-10041.


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