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Sensors 2014, 14(5), 7881-7939; doi:10.3390/s140507881

Humidity Sensors Principle, Mechanism, and Fabrication Technologies: A Comprehensive Review

1
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
2
Functional Devices Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2014 / Revised: 2 April 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2014 / Published: 30 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

Humidity measurement is one of the most significant issues in various areas of applications such as instrumentation, automated systems, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Numerous sorts of humidity sensors fabricated and developed for industrial and laboratory applications are reviewed and presented in this article. The survey frequently concentrates on the RH sensors based upon their organic and inorganic functional materials, e.g., porous ceramics (semiconductors), polymers, ceramic/polymer and electrolytes, as well as conduction mechanism and fabrication technologies. A significant aim of this review is to provide a distinct categorization pursuant to state of the art humidity sensor types, principles of work, sensing substances, transduction mechanisms, and production technologies. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the different humidity sensors such as electrical and statistical data will be detailed and gives an added value to the report. By comparison of overall prospects of the sensors it was revealed that there are still drawbacks as to efficiency of sensing elements and conduction values. The flexibility offered by thick film and thin film processes either in the preparation of materials or in the choice of shape and size of the sensor structure provides advantages over other technologies. These ceramic sensors show faster response than other types.
Keywords: humidity sensors; capacitive/resistive sensor; relative humidity; fabrication technologies; humidity sensing properties; nanocomposites; ceramic/polymer; perovskite materials; protonic conduction mechanism; thick/thin film humidity sensors; capacitive/resistive sensor; relative humidity; fabrication technologies; humidity sensing properties; nanocomposites; ceramic/polymer; perovskite materials; protonic conduction mechanism; thick/thin film
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Farahani, H.; Wagiran, R.; Hamidon, M.N. Humidity Sensors Principle, Mechanism, and Fabrication Technologies: A Comprehensive Review. Sensors 2014, 14, 7881-7939.

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