Sensors 2014, 14(4), 6032-6044; doi:10.3390/s140406032
Article

Fruit Detectability Analysis for Different Camera Positions in Sweet-Pepper

1,* email, 2email, 2email and 1,2email
Received: 6 December 2013; in revised form: 14 March 2014 / Accepted: 20 March 2014 / Published: 27 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract: For robotic harvesting of sweet-pepper fruits in greenhouses a sensor system is required to detect and localize the fruits on the plants. Due to the complex structure of the plant, most fruits are (partially) occluded when an image is taken from one viewpoint only. In this research the effect of multiple camera positions and viewing angles on fruit visibility and detectability was investigated. A recording device was built which allowed to place the camera under different azimuth and zenith angles and to move the camera horizontally along the crop row. Fourteen camera positions were chosen and the fruit visibility in the recorded images was manually determined for each position. For images taken from one position only with the criterion of maximum 50% occlusion per fruit, the fruit detectability (FD) was in no case higher than 69%. The best single positions were the front views and looking with a zenith angle of 60° upwards. The FD increased when a combination was made of multiple viewpoint positions. With a combination of five favourite positions the maximum FD was 90%.
Keywords: fruit visibility; sweet-pepper; occlusion; harvesting; robotics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hemming, J.; Ruizendaal, J.; Hofstee, J.W.; van Henten, E.J. Fruit Detectability Analysis for Different Camera Positions in Sweet-Pepper. Sensors 2014, 14, 6032-6044.

AMA Style

Hemming J, Ruizendaal J, Hofstee JW, van Henten EJ. Fruit Detectability Analysis for Different Camera Positions in Sweet-Pepper. Sensors. 2014; 14(4):6032-6044.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hemming, Jochen; Ruizendaal, Jos; Hofstee, Jan W.; van Henten, Eldert J. 2014. "Fruit Detectability Analysis for Different Camera Positions in Sweet-Pepper." Sensors 14, no. 4: 6032-6044.


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