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Sensors 2014, 14(11), 21483-21496; doi:10.3390/s141121483

Optimal Fluorescence Waveband Determination for Detecting Defective Cherry Tomatoes Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix

1
Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, College of Agricultural and Life Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764, Korea
2
Environmental Microbiology and Food Safety Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Powder Mill Road, Building #303, BARC-East, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 30 October 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
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Abstract

A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defective cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-way ANOVA revealed the optimal excitation wavelength for detecting defect areas was 410 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the fluorescence emission spectra of all regions at 410 nm excitation to determine the emission wavelengths for defect detection. The major emission wavelengths were 688 nm and 506 nm for the detection. Fluorescence images combined with the determined emission wavebands demonstrated the feasibility of detecting defective cherry tomatoes with >98% accuracy. Multi-spectral fluorescence imaging has potential utility in non-destructive quality sorting of cherry tomatoes. View Full-Text
Keywords: cherry tomato; quality sorting; defect detection; hyperspectral image; fluorescence image cherry tomato; quality sorting; defect detection; hyperspectral image; fluorescence image
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Baek, I.-S.; Kim, M.S.; Lee, H.; Lee, W.-H.; Cho, B.-K. Optimal Fluorescence Waveband Determination for Detecting Defective Cherry Tomatoes Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix. Sensors 2014, 14, 21483-21496.

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