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Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19441-19456; doi:10.3390/s141019441

Development of Electronic Nose and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis Techniques to Monitor the Critical Time in SSF Process of Feed Protein

1
School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
2
School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 August 2014 / Revised: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Bioprocess Monitoring and Control)
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Abstract

In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF) industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related changes that occur during SSF process of feed protein. Four fermentation trials conducted were monitored by an electronic nose device and a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) spectrometer. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) were respectively applied to the feature extraction and information fusion. Then, the BP_AdaBoost algorithm was used to develop the fused model for monitoring of the critical time in SSF process of feed protein. Experimental results showed that the identified results of the fusion model are much better than those of the single technique model both in the training and validation sets, and the complexity of the fusion model was also less than that of the single technique model. The overall results demonstrate that it has a high potential in online monitoring of the critical moment in SSF process by use of integrating electronic nose and NIRS techniques, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve the monitoring performance of SSF process. View Full-Text
Keywords: solid state fermentation; electronic nose; near infrared spectroscopy; fusion; monitoring solid state fermentation; electronic nose; near infrared spectroscopy; fusion; monitoring
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jiang, H.; Chen, Q. Development of Electronic Nose and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis Techniques to Monitor the Critical Time in SSF Process of Feed Protein. Sensors 2014, 14, 19441-19456.

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