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Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19336-19353; doi:10.3390/s141019336

Chemical Discrimination in Turbulent Gas Mixtures with MOX Sensors Validated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

1
BioCircuits Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
2
AASS Research Center, Örebro University, 70281, Örebro, Sweden
3
Biomolecular Measurement Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8362, USA
Alexander Vergara passed away during the preparation of the manuscript.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 August 2014 / Revised: 1 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

Chemical detection systems based on chemo-resistive sensors usually include a gas chamber to control the sample air flow and to minimize turbulence. However, such a kind of experimental setup does not reproduce the gas concentration fluctuations observed in natural environments and destroys the spatio-temporal information contained in gas plumes. Aiming at reproducing more realistic environments, we utilize a wind tunnel with two independent gas sources that get naturally mixed along a turbulent flow. For the first time, chemo-resistive gas sensors are exposed to dynamic gas mixtures generated with several concentration levels at the sources. Moreover, the ground truth of gas concentrations at the sensor location was estimated by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used a support vector machine as a tool to show that chemo-resistive transduction can be utilized to reliably identify chemical components in dynamic turbulent mixtures, as long as sufficient gas concentration coverage is used. We show that in open sampling systems, training the classifiers only on high concentrations of gases produces less effective classification and that it is important to calibrate the classification method with data at low gas concentrations to achieve optimal performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical sensors; open sampling systems; gas turbulence; dynamic chemical mixture; inhibitory support vector machine; gas chromatography chemical sensors; open sampling systems; gas turbulence; dynamic chemical mixture; inhibitory support vector machine; gas chromatography
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fonollosa, J.; Rodríguez-Luján, I.; Trincavelli, M.; Vergara, A.; Huerta, R. Chemical Discrimination in Turbulent Gas Mixtures with MOX Sensors Validated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Sensors 2014, 14, 19336-19353.

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