Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Sensors 2013, 13(8), 10802-10822; doi:10.3390/s130810802
Article

A Novel Gaze Tracking Method Based on the Generation of Virtual Calibration Points

,
 and *
Received: 16 July 2013; in revised form: 9 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 August 2013 / Published: 16 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1722 KB, updated 21 June 2014; original version uploaded 21 June 2014]
Abstract: Most conventional gaze-tracking systems require that users look at many points during the initial calibration stage, which is inconvenient for them. To avoid this requirement, we propose a new gaze-tracking method with four important characteristics. First, our gaze-tracking system uses a large screen located at a distance from the user, who wears a lightweight device. Second, our system requires that users look at only four calibration points during the initial calibration stage, during which four pupil centers are noted. Third, five additional points (virtual pupil centers) are generated with a multilayer perceptron using the four actual points (detected pupil centers) as inputs. Fourth, when a user gazes at a large screen, the shape defined by the positions of the four pupil centers is a distorted quadrangle because of the nonlinear movement of the human eyeball. The gaze-detection accuracy is reduced if we map the pupil movement area onto the screen area using a single transform function. We overcame this problem by calculating the gaze position based on multi-geometric transforms using the five virtual points and the four actual points. Experiment results show that the accuracy of the proposed method is better than that of other methods.
Keywords: gaze tracking; multi-geometric transforms; multilayer perceptron; virtual calibration points gaze tracking; multi-geometric transforms; multilayer perceptron; virtual calibration points
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.W.; Heo, H.; Park, K.R. A Novel Gaze Tracking Method Based on the Generation of Virtual Calibration Points. Sensors 2013, 13, 10802-10822.

AMA Style

Lee JW, Heo H, Park KR. A Novel Gaze Tracking Method Based on the Generation of Virtual Calibration Points. Sensors. 2013; 13(8):10802-10822.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Ji W.; Heo, Hwan; Park, Kang R. 2013. "A Novel Gaze Tracking Method Based on the Generation of Virtual Calibration Points." Sensors 13, no. 8: 10802-10822.



Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert