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Cross-Modal Sensory Integration of Visual-Tactile Motion Information: Instrument Design and Human Psychophysics
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, No. 5, Fushing St, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, No. 259, Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, No. 259, Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
The Zanvyl Krieger Mind/Brain Institute, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street 338 Krieger Hall, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 March 2013; in revised form: 22 May 2013 / Accepted: 23 May 2013 / Published: 31 May 2013
Abstract: Information obtained from multiple sensory modalities, such as vision and touch, is integrated to yield a holistic percept. As a haptic approach usually involves cross-modal sensory experiences, it is necessary to develop an apparatus that can characterize how a biological system integrates visual-tactile sensory information as well as how a robotic device infers object information emanating from both vision and touch. In the present study, we develop a novel visual-tactile cross-modal integration stimulator that consists of an LED panel to present visual stimuli and a tactile stimulator with three degrees of freedom that can present tactile motion stimuli with arbitrary motion direction, speed, and indentation depth in the skin. The apparatus can present cross-modal stimuli in which the spatial locations of visual and tactile stimulations are perfectly aligned. We presented visual-tactile stimuli in which the visual and tactile directions were either congruent or incongruent, and human observers reported the perceived visual direction of motion. Results showed that perceived direction of visual motion can be biased by the direction of tactile motion when visual signals are weakened. The results also showed that the visual-tactile motion integration follows the rule of temporal congruency of multi-modal inputs, a fundamental property known for cross-modal integration.
Keywords: visual-tactile integration; direction of motion; congruency; haptic approach; tactile stimulator
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Pei, Y.-C.; Chang, T.-Y.; Lee, T.-C.; Saha, S.; Lai, H.-Y.; Gomez-Ramirez, M.; Chou, S.-W.; Wong, A.M.K. Cross-Modal Sensory Integration of Visual-Tactile Motion Information: Instrument Design and Human Psychophysics. Sensors 2013, 13, 7212-7223.
Pei Y-C, Chang T-Y, Lee T-C, Saha S, Lai H-Y, Gomez-Ramirez M, Chou S-W, Wong AMK. Cross-Modal Sensory Integration of Visual-Tactile Motion Information: Instrument Design and Human Psychophysics. Sensors. 2013; 13(6):7212-7223.
Pei, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Yu; Lee, Tsung-Chi; Saha, Sudipta; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Chou, Shih-Wei; Wong, Alice M.K. 2013. "Cross-Modal Sensory Integration of Visual-Tactile Motion Information: Instrument Design and Human Psychophysics." Sensors 13, no. 6: 7212-7223.