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Sensors, Volume 13, Issue 5 (May 2013), Pages 5406-6881

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Introduction to the Special Issue on “New Trends towards Automatic Vehicle Control and Perception Systems”
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5712-5719; doi:10.3390/s130505712
Received: 24 April 2013 / Revised: 25 April 2013 / Accepted: 27 April 2013 / Published: 2 May 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (58 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intelligent and automatic systems are making our daily life easier. They are able to automate tasks that, up to now, were performed by humans, freeing them from these tedious tasks. They are mainly based on the classical robotic architectures where the stages [...] Read more.
Intelligent and automatic systems are making our daily life easier. They are able to automate tasks that, up to now, were performed by humans, freeing them from these tedious tasks. They are mainly based on the classical robotic architectures where the stages of perception—using different sensor sources or even a fusion of a set of them—and planning—where intelligent control systems are applied—play a key role. Among all of the fields in which intelligent systems can be applied, transport systems are considered one of the most promising ones since over one million fatalities—including drivers, pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists—are registered each year worldwide and they can definitively help to reduce these figures. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends towards Automatic Vehicle Control and Perception Systems)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle The Development of Sun-Tracking System Using Image Processing
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5448-5459; doi:10.3390/s130505448
Received: 30 January 2013 / Revised: 17 April 2013 / Accepted: 17 April 2013 / Published: 24 April 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (907 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents the development of an image-based sun position sensor and the algorithm for how to aim at the Sun precisely by using image processing. Four-quadrant light sensors and bar-shadow photo sensors were used to detect the Sun’s position in the [...] Read more.
This article presents the development of an image-based sun position sensor and the algorithm for how to aim at the Sun precisely by using image processing. Four-quadrant light sensors and bar-shadow photo sensors were used to detect the Sun’s position in the past years. Nevertheless, neither of them can maintain high accuracy under low irradiation conditions. Using the image-based Sun position sensor with image processing can address this drawback. To verify the performance of the Sun-tracking system including an image-based Sun position sensor and a tracking controller with embedded image processing algorithm, we established a Sun image tracking platform and did the performance testing in the laboratory; the results show that the proposed Sun tracking system had the capability to overcome the problem of unstable tracking in cloudy weather and achieve a tracking accuracy of 0.04°. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Activity Recognition Using Hybrid Generative/Discriminative Models on Home Environments Using Binary Sensors
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5460-5477; doi:10.3390/s130505460
Received: 27 February 2013 / Revised: 18 April 2013 / Accepted: 22 April 2013 / Published: 24 April 2013
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Activities of daily living are good indicators of elderly health status, and activity recognition in smart environments is a well-known problem that has been previously addressed by several studies. In this paper, we describe the use of two powerful machine learning schemes, [...] Read more.
Activities of daily living are good indicators of elderly health status, and activity recognition in smart environments is a well-known problem that has been previously addressed by several studies. In this paper, we describe the use of two powerful machine learning schemes, ANN (Artificial Neural Network) and SVM (Support Vector Machines), within the framework of HMM (Hidden Markov Model) in order to tackle the task of activity recognition in a home setting. The output scores of the discriminative models, after processing, are used as observation probabilities of the hybrid approach. We evaluate our approach by comparing these hybrid models with other classical activity recognition methods using five real datasets. We show how the hybrid models achieve significantly better recognition performance, with significance level p < 0:05, proving that the hybrid approach is better suited for the addressed domain. Full article
Open AccessArticle Flexible PZT Thin Film Tactile Sensor for Biomedical Monitoring
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5478-5492; doi:10.3390/s130505478
Received: 16 February 2013 / Revised: 15 April 2013 / Accepted: 18 April 2013 / Published: 25 April 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the development of tactile sensors using the sol-gel process to deposit a PZT thin-film from 250 nm to 1 μm on a flexible stainless steel substrate. The PZT thin-film tactile sensor can be used to measure human pulses from [...] Read more.
This paper presents the development of tactile sensors using the sol-gel process to deposit a PZT thin-film from 250 nm to 1 μm on a flexible stainless steel substrate. The PZT thin-film tactile sensor can be used to measure human pulses from several areas, including carotid, brachial, finger, ankle, radial artery, and the apical region. Flexible PZT tactile sensors can overcome the diverse topology of various human regions and sense the corresponding signals from human bodies. The measured arterial pulse waveform can be used to diagnose hypertension and cardiac failure in patients. The proposed sensors have several advantages, such as flexibility, reliability, high strain, low cost, simple fabrication, and low temperature processing. The PZT thin-film deposition process includes a pyrolysis process at 150 °C/500 °C for 10/5 min, followed by an annealing process at 650 °C for 10 min. Finally, the consistent pulse wave velocity (PWV) was demonstrated based on human pulse measurements from apical to radial, brachial to radial, and radial to ankle. It is characterized that the sensitivity of our PZT-based tactile sensor was approximately 0.798 mV/g. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
Open AccessArticle A Molecularly Imprinted Polymer with Incorporated Graphene Oxide for Electrochemical Determination of Quercetin
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5493-5506; doi:10.3390/s130505493
Received: 13 March 2013 / Revised: 11 April 2013 / Accepted: 12 April 2013 / Published: 25 April 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The molecularly imprinted polymer based on polypyrrole film with incorporated graphene oxide was fabricated and used for electrochemical determination of quercetin. The electrochemical behavior of quercetin on the modified electrode was studied in detail using differential pulse voltammetry. The oxidation peak current [...] Read more.
The molecularly imprinted polymer based on polypyrrole film with incorporated graphene oxide was fabricated and used for electrochemical determination of quercetin. The electrochemical behavior of quercetin on the modified electrode was studied in detail using differential pulse voltammetry. The oxidation peak current of quercetin in B-R buffer solution (pH = 3.5) at the modified electrode was regressed with the concentration in the range from 6.0 × 10−7 to 1.5 × 10−5 mol/L (r2 = 0.997) with a detection limit of 4.8 × 10−8 mol/L (S/N = 3). This electrode showed good stability and reproducibility. In the above mentioned range, rutin or morin which has similar structures and at the same concentration as quercetin did not interfere with the determination of quercetin. The applicability of the method for complex matrix analysis was also evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Tools in Electrochemical Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A Hilbert Transform-Based Smart Sensor for Detection, Classification, and Quantification of Power Quality Disturbances
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5507-5527; doi:10.3390/s130505507
Received: 12 March 2013 / Revised: 17 April 2013 / Accepted: 17 April 2013 / Published: 25 April 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Power quality disturbance (PQD) monitoring has become an important issue due to the growing number of disturbing loads connected to the power line and to the susceptibility of certain loads to their presence. In any real power system, there are multiple sources [...] Read more.
Power quality disturbance (PQD) monitoring has become an important issue due to the growing number of disturbing loads connected to the power line and to the susceptibility of certain loads to their presence. In any real power system, there are multiple sources of several disturbances which can have different magnitudes and appear at different times. In order to avoid equipment damage and estimate the damage severity, they have to be detected, classified, and quantified. In this work, a smart sensor for detection, classification, and quantification of PQD is proposed. First, the Hilbert transform (HT) is used as detection technique; then, the classification of the envelope of a PQD obtained through HT is carried out by a feed forward neural network (FFNN). Finally, the root mean square voltage (Vrms), peak voltage (Vpeak), crest factor (CF), and total harmonic distortion (THD) indices calculated through HT and Parseval’s theorem as well as an instantaneous exponential time constant quantify the PQD according to the disturbance presented. The aforementioned methodology is processed online using digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate array (FPGA). Besides, the proposed smart sensor performance is validated and tested through synthetic signals and under real operating conditions, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5528-5541; doi:10.3390/s130505528
Received: 31 January 2013 / Revised: 18 April 2013 / Accepted: 19 April 2013 / Published: 25 April 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is [...] Read more.
This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors - 2013)
Open AccessArticle A Hybrid LSSVR/HMM-Based Prognostic Approach
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5542-5560; doi:10.3390/s130505542
Received: 20 March 2013 / Revised: 11 April 2013 / Accepted: 19 April 2013 / Published: 26 April 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1085 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In a health management system, prognostics, which is an engineering discipline that predicts a system’s future health, is an important aspect yet there is currently limited research in this field. In this paper, a hybrid approach for prognostics is proposed. The approach [...] Read more.
In a health management system, prognostics, which is an engineering discipline that predicts a system’s future health, is an important aspect yet there is currently limited research in this field. In this paper, a hybrid approach for prognostics is proposed. The approach combines the least squares support vector regression (LSSVR) with the hidden Markov model (HMM). Features extracted from sensor signals are used to train HMMs, which represent different health levels. A LSSVR algorithm is used to predict the feature trends. The LSSVR training and prediction algorithms are modified by adding new data and deleting old data and the probabilities of the predicted features for each HMM are calculated based on forward or backward algorithms. Based on these probabilities, one can determine a system’s future health state and estimate the remaining useful life (RUL). To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using bearing vibration signals. Simulation results show that the LSSVR/HMM approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. Therefore, the LSSVR/HMM approach is very promising in the field of prognostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Seedling Discrimination with Shape Features Derived from a Distance Transform
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5585-5602; doi:10.3390/s130505585
Received: 6 March 2013 / Revised: 4 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 April 2013 / Published: 26 April 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this research is an improvement of plant seedling recognition by two new approaches of shape feature generation based on plant silhouettes. Experiments show that the proposed feature sets possess value in plant recognition when compared with other feature sets. [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is an improvement of plant seedling recognition by two new approaches of shape feature generation based on plant silhouettes. Experiments show that the proposed feature sets possess value in plant recognition when compared with other feature sets. Both methods approximate a distance distribution of an object, either by resampling or by approximation of the distribution with a high degree Legendre polynomial. In the latter case, the polynomial coefficients constitute a feature set. The methods have been tested through a discrimination process where two similar plant species are to be distinguished into their respective classes. The used performance assessment is based on the classification accuracy of 4 different classifiers (a k-Nearest Neighbor, Naive-Bayes, Linear Support Vector Machine, Nonlinear Support Vector Machine). Another set of 21 well-known shape features described in the literature is used for comparison. The used data consisted of 139 samples of cornflower (Centaura cyanus L.) and 63 samples of nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.). The highest discrimination accuracy was achieved with the Legendre Polynomial feature set and amounted to 97.5%. This feature set consisted of 10 numerical values. Another feature set consisting of 21 common features achieved an accuracy of 92.5%. The results suggest that the Legendre Polynomial feature set can compete with or outperform the commonly used feature sets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor-Based Technologies and Processes in Agriculture and Forestry)
Open AccessArticle DRIFTS Sensor: Soil Carbon Validation at Large Scale (Pantelleria, Italy)
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5603-5613; doi:10.3390/s130505603
Received: 17 February 2013 / Revised: 9 April 2013 / Accepted: 18 April 2013 / Published: 26 April 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A fast and accurate measurement of soil carbon is needed in current scientific issues. Today there are many sensors suitable for these purposes, but choosing the appropriate sensor depends on the spatial scale at which the studies are conducted. There are few [...] Read more.
A fast and accurate measurement of soil carbon is needed in current scientific issues. Today there are many sensors suitable for these purposes, but choosing the appropriate sensor depends on the spatial scale at which the studies are conducted. There are few detailed studies that validate these types of measures allowing their immediate use. Here it is validated the quick use of a sensor in execution at Pantelleria, chosen for size, use and variability of the parameter measured, to give an operational tool for carbon stocks studies. The DRIFT sensor used here has been validated in the first 60 cm of the soil of the whole island, and it has shown predictivity higher than 90%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Inertial Sensor-Based Two Feet Motion Tracking for Gait Analysis
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5614-5629; doi:10.3390/s130505614
Received: 5 March 2013 / Revised: 19 April 2013 / Accepted: 20 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1617 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two feet motion is estimated for gait analysis. An inertial sensor is attached on each shoe and an inertial navigation algorithm is used to estimate the movement of both feet. To correct inter-shoe position error, a camera is installed on the right [...] Read more.
Two feet motion is estimated for gait analysis. An inertial sensor is attached on each shoe and an inertial navigation algorithm is used to estimate the movement of both feet. To correct inter-shoe position error, a camera is installed on the right shoe and infrared LEDs are installed on the left shoe. The proposed system gives key gait analysis parameters such as step length, stride length, foot angle and walking speed. Also it gives three dimensional trajectories of two feet for gait analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Garment Counting in a Textile Warehouse by Means of a Laser Imaging System
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5630-5648; doi:10.3390/s130505630
Received: 4 April 2013 / Revised: 25 April 2013 / Accepted: 25 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
PDF Full-text (3864 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Textile logistic warehouses are highly automated mechanized places where control points are needed to count and validate the number of garments in each batch. This paper proposes and describes a low cost and small size automated system designed to count the number [...] Read more.
Textile logistic warehouses are highly automated mechanized places where control points are needed to count and validate the number of garments in each batch. This paper proposes and describes a low cost and small size automated system designed to count the number of garments by processing an image of the corresponding hanger hooks generated using an array of phototransistors sensors and a linear laser beam. The generated image is processed using computer vision techniques to infer the number of garment units. The system has been tested on two logistic warehouses with a mean error in the estimated number of hangers of 0.13%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Sensing and Imaging)
Open AccessArticle Fast Nearly ML Estimation of Doppler Frequency in GNSS Signal Acquisition Process
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5649-5670; doi:10.3390/s130505649
Received: 14 March 2013 / Revised: 17 April 2013 / Accepted: 22 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is known that signal acquisition in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) field provides a rough maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate based on a peak search in a two-dimensional grid. In this paper, the theoretical mathematical expression of the cross-ambiguity function (CAF) is exploited [...] Read more.
It is known that signal acquisition in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) field provides a rough maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate based on a peak search in a two-dimensional grid. In this paper, the theoretical mathematical expression of the cross-ambiguity function (CAF) is exploited to analyze the grid and improve the accuracy of the frequency estimate. Based on the simple equation derived from this mathematical expression of the CAF, a family of novel algorithms is proposed to refine the Doppler frequency estimate with respect to that provided by a conventional acquisition method. In an ideal scenario where there is no noise and other nuisances, the frequency estimation error can be theoretically reduced to zero. On the other hand, in the presence of noise, the new algorithm almost reaches the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) which is derived as benchmark. For comparison, a least-square (LS) method is proposed. It is shown that the proposed solution achieves the same performance of LS, but requires a dramatically reduced computational burden. An averaging method is proposed to mitigate the influence of noise, especially when signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low. Finally, the influence of the grid resolution in the search space is analyzed in both time and frequency domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Discrete and Polymeric, Mono- and Dinuclear Silver Complexes of a Macrocyclic Tetraoxime Ligand with AgI–AgI Interactions
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5671-5685; doi:10.3390/s130505671
Received: 3 March 2013 / Revised: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 27 April 2013 / Published: 2 May 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1003 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Macrocyclic compounds that can bind cationic species efficiently and selectively with their cyclic cavities have great potential as excellent chemosensors for metal ions. Recently, we have developed a tetraoxime-type tetraazamacrocyclic ligand 1 formed through a facile one-pot cyclization reaction. Aiming to explore [...] Read more.
Macrocyclic compounds that can bind cationic species efficiently and selectively with their cyclic cavities have great potential as excellent chemosensors for metal ions. Recently, we have developed a tetraoxime-type tetraazamacrocyclic ligand 1 formed through a facile one-pot cyclization reaction. Aiming to explore and bring out the potential of the tetraoxime macrocycle 1 as a chelating sensor, we report herein the preparation of several kinds of silver complexes of 1 and their unique coordination structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. As a result, the formation of two kinds of discrete structures, monomeric complexes [Ag(1)X] (X = counter anions) and a dimeric complex [Ag2(1)2]X2, and two kinds of polymeric structures from a mononuclear complex, [Ag(1)]nXn, and from a dinuclear complex, [Ag2(1)X2]n, was demonstrated. In the resulting complexes, the structurally flexible macrocyclic ligand 1 was found to provide several different coordination modes. Notably, in some silver complexes of 1, AgI–AgI interactions were observed with different AgI–AgI distances which depend on the kind of counter anions and the chemical composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Selective Detection and Automated Counting of Fluorescently-Labeled Chrysotile Asbestos Using a Dual-Mode High-Throughput Microscopy (DM-HTM) Method
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5686-5699; doi:10.3390/s130505686
Received: 16 February 2013 / Revised: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 24 April 2013 / Published: 2 May 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (750 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phase contrast microscopy (PCM) is a widely used analytical method for airborne asbestos, but it is unable to distinguish asbestos from non-asbestos fibers and requires time-consuming and laborious manual counting of fibers. Previously, we developed a high-throughput microscopy (HTM) method that could [...] Read more.
Phase contrast microscopy (PCM) is a widely used analytical method for airborne asbestos, but it is unable to distinguish asbestos from non-asbestos fibers and requires time-consuming and laborious manual counting of fibers. Previously, we developed a high-throughput microscopy (HTM) method that could greatly reduce human intervention and analysis time through automated image acquisition and counting of fibers. In this study, we designed a dual-mode HTM (DM-HTM) device for the combined reflection and fluorescence imaging of asbestos, and automated a series of built-in image processing commands of ImageJ software to test its capabilities. We used DksA, a chrysotile-adhesive protein, for selective detection of chrysotile fibers in the mixed dust-free suspension of crysotile and amosite prepared in the laboratory. We demonstrate that fluorescently-stained chrysotile and total fibers can be identified and enumerated automatically in a high-throughput manner by the DM-HTM system. Combined with more advanced software that can correctly identify overlapping and branching fibers and distinguish between fibers and elongated dust particles, the DM-HTM method should enable fully automated counting of airborne asbestos. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle UV/Vis Spectroelectrochemistry as a Tool for Monitoring the Fabrication of Sensors Based on Silver Nanoparticle Modified Electrodes
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5700-5711; doi:10.3390/s130505700
Received: 10 March 2013 / Revised: 23 April 2013 / Accepted: 23 April 2013 / Published: 2 May 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (623 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new controlled current multipulse methodology has been developed to modify the screen-printed electrode surface with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Spectroelectrochemistry has provided not only information about the type of nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on the electrode surface, but also about the electrosynthesis process. [...] Read more.
A new controlled current multipulse methodology has been developed to modify the screen-printed electrode surface with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Spectroelectrochemistry has provided not only information about the type of nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on the electrode surface, but also about the electrosynthesis process. Small NPs without plasmon band are initially generated. Next, these nuclei grow to form bigger NPs in the reduction pulses with a characteristic plasmon band centered at 400 nm. Most of the NPs are generated during the first reduction pulses and a linear growth of the absorbance at a lower reaction rate was obtained in the subsequent pulses. Oxidation pulses do not redissolve completely silver NPs but only partially, meaning that very stable NPs are generated. AgNPs-modified electrodes have been successfully used to determine hydrogen peroxide. Spectroelectrochemistry has also yielded very useful information to understand the voltammetric signal obtained during the reduction of H2O2 on silver modified electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Tools in Electrochemical Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Characterization of a Fully Differential MEMS Accelerometer Fabricated Using MetalMUMPs Technology
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5720-5736; doi:10.3390/s130505720
Received: 28 February 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 25 April 2013 / Published: 2 May 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1045 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a fully differential single-axis accelerometer fabricated using the MetalMUMPs process. The unique structural configuration and common-centriod wiring of the metal electrodes enables a fully differential sensing scheme with robust metal sensing structures. CoventorWare is used in structural and electrical [...] Read more.
This paper presents a fully differential single-axis accelerometer fabricated using the MetalMUMPs process. The unique structural configuration and common-centriod wiring of the metal electrodes enables a fully differential sensing scheme with robust metal sensing structures. CoventorWare is used in structural and electrical design and simulation of the fully differential accelerometer. The MUMPs foundry fabrication process of the sensor allows for high yield, good process consistency and provides 20 μm structural thickness of the sensing element, which makes the capacitive sensing eligible. In device characterization, surface profile of the fabricated device is measured using a Veeco surface profilometer; and mean and gradient residual stress in the nickel structure are calculated as approximately 94.7 MPa and −5.27 MPa/μm, respectively. Dynamic characterization of the sensor is performed using a vibration shaker with a high-end commercial calibrating accelerometer as reference. The sensitivity of the sensor is measured as 0.52 mV/g prior to off-chip amplification. Temperature dependence of the sensing capacitance is also characterized. A −0.021fF/°C is observed. The findings in the presented work will provide useful information for design of sensors and actuators such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and electrothermal actuators that are to be fabricated using MetalMUMPs technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A High-Throughput Antibody-Based Microarray Typing Platform
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5737-5748; doi:10.3390/s130505737
Received: 22 February 2013 / Revised: 9 April 2013 / Accepted: 15 April 2013 / Published: 3 May 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many rapid methods have been developed for screening foods for the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Rapid methods that have the additional ability to identify microorganisms via multiplexed immunological recognition have the potential for classification or typing of microbial contaminants thus facilitating epidemiological [...] Read more.
Many rapid methods have been developed for screening foods for the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Rapid methods that have the additional ability to identify microorganisms via multiplexed immunological recognition have the potential for classification or typing of microbial contaminants thus facilitating epidemiological investigations that aim to identify outbreaks and trace back the contamination to its source. This manuscript introduces a novel, high throughput typing platform that employs microarrayed multiwell plate substrates and laser-induced fluorescence of the nucleic acid intercalating dye/stain SYBR Gold for detection of antibody-captured bacteria. The aim of this study was to use this platform for comparison of different sets of antibodies raised against the same pathogens as well as demonstrate its potential effectiveness for serotyping. To that end, two sets of antibodies raised against each of the “Big Six” non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) as well as E. coli O157:H7 were array-printed into microtiter plates, and serial dilutions of the bacteria were added and subsequently detected. Though antibody specificity was not sufficient for the development of an STEC serotyping method, the STEC antibody sets performed reasonably well exhibiting that specificity increased at lower capture antibody concentrations or, conversely, at lower bacterial target concentrations. The favorable results indicated that with sufficiently selective and ideally concentrated sets of biorecognition elements (e.g., antibodies or aptamers), this high-throughput platform can be used to rapidly type microbial isolates derived from food samples within ca. 80 min of total assay time. It can also potentially be used to detect the pathogens from food enrichments and at least serve as a platform for testing antibodies. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dual-Specific Interaction to Detect DNA on Gold Nanoparticles
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5749-5756; doi:10.3390/s130505749
Received: 11 March 2013 / Revised: 1 April 2013 / Accepted: 7 April 2013 / Published: 3 May 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (655 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An approach to selectively and efficiently detect single strand DNA is developed by using streptavidin coated gold nanoparticles (StAuNPs) as efficient quenchers. The central concept for the successful detection is the combination the of streptavidin-biotin interaction with specific probe-target DNA hybridization. Biotin [...] Read more.
An approach to selectively and efficiently detect single strand DNA is developed by using streptavidin coated gold nanoparticles (StAuNPs) as efficient quenchers. The central concept for the successful detection is the combination the of streptavidin-biotin interaction with specific probe-target DNA hybridization. Biotin labeled probe DNAs act as “bridges” to bring Cy5 labeled targets to the particle surface and the fluorophore dye can be rapidly and efficiently quenched by StAuPNs. By measuring the changes of photoluminescence intensity of Cy5, an efficient, selective, and reversed detection of DNA hybridization is realized. The methodology may pave a new way for simple and rapid detections of biomolecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle A Split-Path Schema-Based RFID Data Storage Model in Supply Chain Management
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5757-5776; doi:10.3390/s130505757
Received: 8 March 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 2 May 2013 / Published: 3 May 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts [...] Read more.
In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products . Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Wireless Laser Range Finder System for Vertical Displacement Monitoring of Mega-Trusses during Construction
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5796-5813; doi:10.3390/s130505796
Received: 7 March 2013 / Revised: 18 April 2013 / Accepted: 27 April 2013 / Published: 6 May 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As buildings become increasingly complex, construction monitoring using various sensors is urgently needed for both more systematic and accurate safety management and high-quality productivity in construction. In this study, a monitoring system that is composed of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and [...] Read more.
As buildings become increasingly complex, construction monitoring using various sensors is urgently needed for both more systematic and accurate safety management and high-quality productivity in construction. In this study, a monitoring system that is composed of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a wireless sensor node was proposed and applied to an irregular building under construction. The subject building consists of large cross-sectional members, such as mega-columns, mega-trusses, and edge truss, which secured the large spaces. The mega-trusses and edge truss that support this large space are of the cantilever type. The vertical displacement occurring at the free end of these members was directly measured using an LDS. To validate the accuracy and reliability of the deflection data measured from the LDS, a total station was also employed as a sensor for comparison with the LDS. In addition, the numerical simulation result was compared with the deflection obtained from the LDS and total station. Based on these investigations, the proposed wireless displacement monitoring system was able to improve the construction quality by monitoring the real-time behavior of the structure, and the applicability of the proposed system to buildings under construction for the evaluation of structural safety was confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Sensing and Imaging)
Open AccessArticle Standardized Sample Preparation Using a Drop-on-Demand Printing Platform
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5814-5825; doi:10.3390/s130505814
Received: 29 March 2013 / Revised: 26 April 2013 / Accepted: 29 April 2013 / Published: 7 May 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hazard detection systems must be evaluated with appropriate test material concentrations under controlled conditions in order to accurately identify and quantify unknown residues commonly utilized in theater. The existing assortment of hazard reference sample preparation methods/techniques presents a range of variability and [...] Read more.
Hazard detection systems must be evaluated with appropriate test material concentrations under controlled conditions in order to accurately identify and quantify unknown residues commonly utilized in theater. The existing assortment of hazard reference sample preparation methods/techniques presents a range of variability and reproducibility concerns, making it increasingly difficult to accurately assess optically- based detection technologies. To overcome these challenges, we examined the optimization, characterization, and calibration of microdroplets from a drop-on-demand microdispenser that has a proven capability for the preparation of energetic reference materials. Research presented herein focuses on the development of a simplistic instrument calibration technique and sample preparation protocol for explosive materials testing based on drop-on-demand technology. Droplet mass and reproducibility were measured using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy. The results presented here demonstrate the operational factors that influence droplet dispensing for specific materials (e.g., energetic and interferents). Understanding these parameters permits the determination of droplet and sample uniformity and reproducibility (typical R2 values of 0.991, relative standard deviation or RSD ≤ 5%), and thus the demonstrated maturation of a successful and robust methodology for energetic sample preparation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Development of a Micro-Gripper Using Piezoelectric Bimorphs
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5826-5840; doi:10.3390/s130505826
Received: 4 March 2013 / Revised: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 28 April 2013 / Published: 7 May 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1686 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Piezoelectric bimorphs have been used as a micro-gripper in many applications, but the system might be complex and the response performance might not have been fully characterized. In this study the dynamic characteristics of bending piezoelectric bimorphs actuators were theoretically and experimentally [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric bimorphs have been used as a micro-gripper in many applications, but the system might be complex and the response performance might not have been fully characterized. In this study the dynamic characteristics of bending piezoelectric bimorphs actuators were theoretically and experimentally investigated for micro-gripping applications in terms of deflection along the length, transient response, and frequency response with varying driving voltages and driving signals. In addition, the implementation of a parallel micro-gripper using bending piezoelectric bimorphs was presented. Both fingers were actuated separately to perform mini object handling. The bending piezoelectric bimorphs were fixed as cantilevers and individually driven using a high voltage amplifier and the bimorph deflection was measured using a non contact proximity sensor attached at the tip of one finger. The micro-gripper could perform precise micro-manipulation tasks and could handle objects down to 50 µm in size. This eliminates the need for external actuator extension of the microgripper as the grasping action was achieved directly with the piezoelectric bimorph, thus minimizing the weight and the complexity of the micro-gripper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
Open AccessArticle A Ferrocene-Porphyrin Ligand for Multi-Transduction Chemical Sensor Development
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5841-5856; doi:10.3390/s130505841
Received: 14 March 2013 / Revised: 19 April 2013 / Accepted: 22 April 2013 / Published: 7 May 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
5,10,15,20-Tetraferrocenyl porphyrin, H2TFcP, a simple example of a donor-acceptor system, was tested as ligand for the development of a novel multi-transduction chemical sensors aimed at the determination of transition metal ions. The fluorescence energy transfer between ferrocene donor and porphyrin [...] Read more.
5,10,15,20-Tetraferrocenyl porphyrin, H2TFcP, a simple example of a donor-acceptor system, was tested as ligand for the development of a novel multi-transduction chemical sensors aimed at the determination of transition metal ions. The fluorescence energy transfer between ferrocene donor and porphyrin acceptor sub-units was considered. The simultaneously measured optical and potentiometric responses of solvent polymeric membranes based on H2TFcP permitted the detection of lead ions in sample solutions, in the concentration range from 2.7 × 10−7 to 3.0 × 10−3 M. The detection limit of lead determination was 0.27 μM, low enough to perform the direct analysis of Pb2+ in natural waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Tools in Electrochemical Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Position Measurement/Tracking Comparison of the Instrumentation in a Droplet-Actuated-Robotic Platform
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5857-5869; doi:10.3390/s130505857
Received: 4 April 2013 / Revised: 25 April 2013 / Accepted: 25 April 2013 / Published: 7 May 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (598 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports our work on developing a surface tension actuated micro-robotic platform supported by three bubbles (liquid environment) or droplets (gaseous environment). The actuation principle relies on the force developed by surface tension below a millimeter, which benefits from scaling laws, [...] Read more.
This paper reports our work on developing a surface tension actuated micro-robotic platform supported by three bubbles (liquid environment) or droplets (gaseous environment). The actuation principle relies on the force developed by surface tension below a millimeter, which benefits from scaling laws, and is used to actuate this new type of compliant robot. By separately controlling the pressure inside each bubble, three degrees of freedom can be actuated. We investigated three sensing solutions to measure the platform attitude in real-time (z-position of each droplet, leading to the knowledge of the z position and Θx and Θy tilts of the platform). The comparison between optical, resistive, and capacitive measurement principles is hereafter reported. The optical technique uses SFH-9201 components. The resistive technique involves measuring the electrical resistance of a path flowing through two droplets and the platform. This innovative technique for sensing table position combines three pairs of resistances, from which the resistance in each drop can be deduced, thus determining the platform position. The third solution is a more usual high frequency (~200 MHz) capacitive measurement. The resistive method has been proven reliable and is simple to implement. This work opens perspectives toward an interesting sensing solution for micro-robotic platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidic Devices)
Open AccessArticle Remote Interrogation of WDM Fiber-Optic Intensity Sensors Deploying Delay Lines in the Virtual Domain
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5870-5880; doi:10.3390/s130505870
Received: 6 March 2013 / Revised: 9 April 2013 / Accepted: 3 May 2013 / Published: 7 May 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (786 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work a radio-frequency self-referencing WDM intensity-based fiber-optic sensor operating in reflective configuration and using virtual instrumentation is presented. The use of virtual delay lines at the reception stage, along with novel flexible self-referencing techniques, and using a single frequency, avoids [...] Read more.
In this work a radio-frequency self-referencing WDM intensity-based fiber-optic sensor operating in reflective configuration and using virtual instrumentation is presented. The use of virtual delay lines at the reception stage, along with novel flexible self-referencing techniques, and using a single frequency, avoids all-optical or electrical-based delay lines approaches. This solution preserves the self-referencing and performance characteristics of the proposed WDM-based optical sensing topology, and leads to a more compact solution with higher flexibility for the multiple interrogation of remote sensing points in a sensor network. Results are presented for a displacement sensor demonstrating the concept feasibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optomechatronics) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle A Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing (MASS) System for Rapid Roadway Assessment
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5881-5896; doi:10.3390/s130505881
Received: 5 March 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 2 May 2013 / Published: 8 May 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2924 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface waves are commonly used for vibration-based nondestructive testing for infrastructure. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) has been used to detect subsurface properties for geologic inspections. Recently, efforts were made to scale down these subsurface detection approaches to see how they [...] Read more.
Surface waves are commonly used for vibration-based nondestructive testing for infrastructure. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) has been used to detect subsurface properties for geologic inspections. Recently, efforts were made to scale down these subsurface detection approaches to see how they perform on small-scale structures such as concrete slabs and pavements. Additional efforts have been made to replace the traditional surface-mounted transducers with non-contact acoustic transducers. Though some success has been achieved, most of these new approaches are inefficient because they require point-to-point measurements or off-line signal analysis. This article introduces a Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing system as MASS, which is an improved surface wave based implementation for measuring the subsurface profile of roadways. The compact MASS system is a 3-wheeled cart outfitted with an electromagnetic impact source, distance register, non-contact acoustic sensors and data acquisition/ processing equipment. The key advantage of the MASS system is the capability to collect measurements continuously at walking speed in an automatic way. The fast scan and real-time analysis advantages are based upon the non-contact acoustic sensing and fast air-coupled surface wave analysis program. This integration of hardware and software makes the MASS system an efficient mobile prototype for the field test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Last Trends in Acoustic Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A Passive Wireless Multi-Sensor SAW Technology Device and System Perspectives
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5897-5922; doi:10.3390/s130505897
Received: 10 March 2013 / Revised: 18 April 2013 / Accepted: 24 April 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper will discuss a SAW passive, wireless multi-sensor system under development by our group for the past several years. The device focus is on orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) SAW sensors, which use both frequency diversity and pulse position reflectors to encode [...] Read more.
This paper will discuss a SAW passive, wireless multi-sensor system under development by our group for the past several years. The device focus is on orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) SAW sensors, which use both frequency diversity and pulse position reflectors to encode the device ID and will be briefly contrasted to other embodiments. A synchronous correlator transceiver is used for the hardware and post processing and correlation techniques of the received signal to extract the sensor information will be presented. Critical device and system parameters addressed include encoding, operational range, SAW device parameters, post-processing, and antenna-SAW device integration. A fully developed 915 MHz OFC SAW multi-sensor system is used to show experimental results. The system is based on a software radio approach that provides great flexibility for future enhancements and diverse sensor applications. Several different sensor types using the OFC SAW platform are shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
Open AccessArticle An Intelligent Automated Door Control System Based on a Smart Camera
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5923-5936; doi:10.3390/s130505923
Received: 15 March 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 3 May 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an innovative access control system, based on human detection and path analysis, to reduce false automatic door system actions while increasing the added values for security applications. The proposed system can first identify a person from the scene, and [...] Read more.
This paper presents an innovative access control system, based on human detection and path analysis, to reduce false automatic door system actions while increasing the added values for security applications. The proposed system can first identify a person from the scene, and track his trajectory to predict his intention for accessing the entrance, and finally activate the door accordingly. The experimental results show that the proposed system has the advantages of high precision, safety, reliability, and can be responsive to demands, while preserving the benefits of being low cost and high added value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle DNA Hairpins as Temperature Switches, Thermometers and Ionic Detectors
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5937-5944; doi:10.3390/s130505937
Received: 28 March 2013 / Revised: 25 April 2013 / Accepted: 5 May 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Temperature is of major importance in most branches of science and technology as well as in everyday life, and with the miniaturization of electronic devices and the increasing ability to make research into small-scale systems, a specific need for very small thermostats [...] Read more.
Temperature is of major importance in most branches of science and technology as well as in everyday life, and with the miniaturization of electronic devices and the increasing ability to make research into small-scale systems, a specific need for very small thermostats and thermometers has been created. Here we describe how DNA molecules can be used as nanoscale sensors to meet these requirements. We illustrate how the hybridization kinetics between bases in DNA molecules combined with conformational changes of the DNA backbone can be exploited in the construction of simple but versatile temperature switches and thermometers, which can be built into electronic systems. DNA based sensors are at the same time applicable as ion detectors to monitor the chemical environment of a specific system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Design of a Soil Cutting Resistance Sensor for Application in Site-Specific Tillage
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5945-5957; doi:10.3390/s130505945
Received: 3 April 2013 / Revised: 3 May 2013 / Accepted: 3 May 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (433 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One objective of precision agriculture is to provide accurate information about soil and crop properties to optimize the management of agricultural inputs to meet site-specific needs. This paper describes the development of a sensor equipped with RTK-GPS technology that continuously and efficiently [...] Read more.
One objective of precision agriculture is to provide accurate information about soil and crop properties to optimize the management of agricultural inputs to meet site-specific needs. This paper describes the development of a sensor equipped with RTK-GPS technology that continuously and efficiently measures soil cutting resistance at various depths while traversing the field. Laboratory and preliminary field tests verified the accuracy of this prototype soil strength sensor. The data obtained using a hand-operated soil cone penetrometer was used to evaluate this field soil compaction depth profile sensor. To date, this sensor has only been tested in one field under one gravimetric water content condition. This field test revealed that the relationships between the soil strength profile sensor (SSPS) cutting force and soil cone index values are assumed to be quadratic for the various depths considered: 0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm (r2 = 0.58, 0.45 and 0.54, respectively). Soil resistance contour maps illustrated its practical value. The developed sensor provides accurate, timely and affordable information on soil properties to optimize resources and improve agricultural economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor-Based Technologies and Processes in Agriculture and Forestry)
Open AccessArticle Air-Coupled Piezoelectric Transducers with Active Polypropylene Foam Matching Layers
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5996-6013; doi:10.3390/s130505996
Received: 4 March 2013 / Revised: 9 April 2013 / Accepted: 25 April 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents the design, construction and characterization of air-coupled piezoelectric transducers using 1–3 connectivity piezocomposite disks with a stack of matching layers being the outer one an active quarter wavelength layer made of polypropylene foam ferroelectret film. This kind of material [...] Read more.
This work presents the design, construction and characterization of air-coupled piezoelectric transducers using 1–3 connectivity piezocomposite disks with a stack of matching layers being the outer one an active quarter wavelength layer made of polypropylene foam ferroelectret film. This kind of material has shown a stable piezoelectric response together with a very low acoustic impedance (<0.1 MRayl). These features make them a suitable candidate for the dual use or function proposed here: impedance matching layer and active material for air-coupled transduction. The transducer centre frequency is determined by the l/4 resonance of the polypropylene foam ferroelectret film (0.35 MHz), then, the rest of the transducer components (piezocomposite disk and passive intermediate matching layers) are all tuned to this frequency. The transducer has been tested in several working modes including pulse-echo and pitch-catch as well as wide and narrow band excitation. The performance of the proposed novel transducer is compared with that of a conventional air-coupled transducers operating in a similar frequency range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
Open AccessArticle An Implantable Neural Sensing Microsystem with Fiber-Optic Data Transmission and Power Delivery
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6014-6031; doi:10.3390/s130506014
Received: 22 March 2013 / Revised: 6 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1768 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have developed a prototype cortical neural sensing microsystem for brain implantable neuroengineering applications. Its key feature is that both the transmission of broadband, multichannel neural data and power required for the embedded microelectronics are provided by optical fiber access. The fiber-optic [...] Read more.
We have developed a prototype cortical neural sensing microsystem for brain implantable neuroengineering applications. Its key feature is that both the transmission of broadband, multichannel neural data and power required for the embedded microelectronics are provided by optical fiber access. The fiber-optic system is aimed at enabling neural recording from rodents and primates by converting cortical signals to a digital stream of infrared light pulses. In the full microsystem whose performance is summarized in this paper, an analog-to-digital converter and a low power digital controller IC have been integrated with a low threshold, semiconductor laser to extract the digitized neural signals optically from the implantable unit. The microsystem also acquires electrical power and synchronization clocks via optical fibers from an external laser by using a highly efficient photovoltaic cell on board. The implantable unit employs a flexible polymer substrate to integrate analog and digital microelectronics and on-chip optoelectronic components, while adapting to the anatomical and physiological constraints of the environment. A low power analog CMOS chip, which includes preamplifier and multiplexing circuitry, is directly flip-chip bonded to the microelectrode array to form the cortical neurosensor device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Methodology and a Web Platform for the Collaborative Development of Context-Aware Systems
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6032-6053; doi:10.3390/s130506032
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Information and services personalization is essential for an optimal user experience. Systems have to be able to acquire data about the user’s context, process them in order to identify the user’s situation and finally, adapt the functionality of the system to that [...] Read more.
Information and services personalization is essential for an optimal user experience. Systems have to be able to acquire data about the user’s context, process them in order to identify the user’s situation and finally, adapt the functionality of the system to that situation, but the development of context-aware systems is complex. Data coming from distributed and heterogeneous sources have to be acquired, processed and managed. Several programming frameworks have been proposed in order to simplify the development of context-aware systems. These frameworks offer high-level application programming interfaces for programmers that complicate the involvement of domain experts in the development life-cycle. The participation of users that do not have programming skills but are experts in the application domain can speed up and improve the development process of these kinds of systems. Apart from that, there is a lack of methodologies to guide the development process. This article presents as main contributions, the implementation and evaluation of a web platform and a methodology to collaboratively develop context-aware systems by programmers and domain experts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Self-Sensing Piezoelectric MicroCantilever Biosensor for Detection of Ultrasmall Adsorbed Masses: Theory and Experiments
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6089-6108; doi:10.3390/s130506089
Received: 6 April 2013 / Revised: 4 May 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Detection of ultrasmall masses such as proteins and pathogens has been made possible as a result of advancements in nanotechnology. Development of label-free and highly sensitive biosensors has enabled the transduction of molecular recognition into detectable physical quantities. Microcantilever (MC)-based systems have [...] Read more.
Detection of ultrasmall masses such as proteins and pathogens has been made possible as a result of advancements in nanotechnology. Development of label-free and highly sensitive biosensors has enabled the transduction of molecular recognition into detectable physical quantities. Microcantilever (MC)-based systems have played a widespread role in developing such biosensors. One of the most important drawbacks of all of the available biosensors is that they all come at a very high cost. Moreover, there are certain limitations in the measurement equipments attached to the biosensors which are mostly optical measurement systems. A unique self-sensing detection technique is proposed in this paper in order to address most of the limitations of the current measurement systems. A self-sensing bridge is used to excite piezoelectric MC-based sensor functioning in dynamic mode, which simultaneously measures the system’s response through the self-induced voltage generated in the piezoelectric material. As a result, the need for bulky, expensive read-out equipment is eliminated. A comprehensive mathematical model is presented for the proposed self-sensing detection platform using distributed-parameters system modeling. An adaptation strategy is then implemented in the second part in order to compensate for the time-variation of piezoelectric properties which dynamically improves the behavior of the system. Finally, results are reported from an extensive experimental investigation carried out to prove the capability of the proposed platform. Experimental results verified the proposed mathematical modeling presented in the first part of the study with accuracy of 97.48%. Implementing the adaptation strategy increased the accuracy to 99.82%. These results proved the measurement capability of the proposed self-sensing strategy. It enables development of a cost-effective, sensitive and miniaturized mass sensing platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
Open AccessArticle A Wearable Mobile Sensor Platform to Assist Fruit Grading
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6109-6140; doi:10.3390/s130506109
Received: 20 April 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 26 April 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3787 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wearable computing is a form of ubiquitous computing that offers flexible and useful tools for users. Specifically, glove-based systems have been used in the last 30 years in a variety of applications, but mostly focusing on sensing people’s attributes, such as finger [...] Read more.
Wearable computing is a form of ubiquitous computing that offers flexible and useful tools for users. Specifically, glove-based systems have been used in the last 30 years in a variety of applications, but mostly focusing on sensing people’s attributes, such as finger bending and heart rate. In contrast, we propose in this work a novel flexible and reconfigurable instrumentation platform in the form of a glove, which can be used to analyze and measure attributes of fruits by just pointing or touching them with the proposed glove. An architecture for such a platform is designed and its application for intuitive fruit grading is also presented, including experimental results for several fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor-Based Technologies and Processes in Agriculture and Forestry)
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Open AccessArticle Algorithms Based on CWT and Classifiers to Control Cardiac Alterations and Stress Using an ECG and a SCR
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6141-6170; doi:10.3390/s130506141
Received: 12 April 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1355 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the results of using a commercial pulsimeter as an electrocardiogram (ECG) for wireless detection of cardiac alterations and stress levels for home control. For these purposes, signal processing techniques (Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and J48) have been used, respectively. [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of using a commercial pulsimeter as an electrocardiogram (ECG) for wireless detection of cardiac alterations and stress levels for home control. For these purposes, signal processing techniques (Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and J48) have been used, respectively. The designed algorithm analyses the ECG signal and is able to detect the heart rate (99.42%), arrhythmia (93.48%) and extrasystoles (99.29%). The detection of stress level is complemented with Skin Conductance Response (SCR), whose success is 94.02%. The heart rate variability does not show added value to the stress detection in this case. With this pulsimeter, it is possible to prevent and detect anomalies for a non-intrusive way associated to a telemedicine system. It is also possible to use it during physical activity due to the fact the CWT minimizes the motion artifacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Hydrothermal Synthesis of Various Hierarchical ZnO Nanostructures and Their Methane Sensing Properties
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6171-6182; doi:10.3390/s130506171
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 23 April 2013 / Accepted: 26 April 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (928 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanorods, net-like ZnO nanofibers and ZnO nanobulks have been successfully synthesized via a surfactant assisted hydrothemal method. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. A possible growth mechanism of the [...] Read more.
Hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanorods, net-like ZnO nanofibers and ZnO nanobulks have been successfully synthesized via a surfactant assisted hydrothemal method. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. A possible growth mechanism of the various hierarchical ZnO nanostructures is discussed in detail. Gas sensors based on the as-prepared ZnO nanostructures were fabricated by screen-printing on a flat ceramic substrate. Furthermore, their gas sensing characteristics towards methane were systematically investigated. Methane is an important characteristic hydrocarbon contaminant found dissolved in power transformer oil as a result of faults. We find that the hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanorods and net-like ZnO nanofibers samples show higher gas response and lower operating temperature with rapid response-recovery time compared to those of sensors based on ZnO nanobulks. These results present a feasible way of exploring high performance sensing materials for on-site detection of characteristic fault gases dissolved in transformer oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Stratified Acoustic Model Accounting for Phase Shifts for Underwater Acoustic Networks
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6183-6203; doi:10.3390/s130506183
Received: 6 March 2013 / Revised: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 24 April 2013 / Published: 13 May 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate acoustic channel models are critical for the study of underwater acoustic networks. Existing models include physics-based models and empirical approximation models. The former enjoy good accuracy, but incur heavy computational load, rendering them impractical in large networks. On the other hand, [...] Read more.
Accurate acoustic channel models are critical for the study of underwater acoustic networks. Existing models include physics-based models and empirical approximation models. The former enjoy good accuracy, but incur heavy computational load, rendering them impractical in large networks. On the other hand, the latter are computationally inexpensive but inaccurate since they do not account for the complex effects of boundary reflection losses, the multi-path phenomenon and ray bending in the stratified ocean medium. In this paper, we propose a Stratified Acoustic Model (SAM) based on frequency-independent geometrical ray tracing, accounting for each ray’s phase shift during the propagation. It is a feasible channel model for large scale underwater acoustic network simulation, allowing us to predict the transmission loss with much lower computational complexity than the traditional physics-based models. The accuracy of the model is validated via comparisons with the experimental measurements in two different oceans. Satisfactory agreements with the measurements and with other computationally intensive classical physics-based models are demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Last Trends in Acoustic Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A Graphene-Based Electrochemical Sensor for Rapid Determination of Phenols in Water
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6204-6216; doi:10.3390/s130506204
Received: 26 March 2013 / Revised: 28 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 13 May 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (843 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) coated with a graphene/polymer film was fabricated for rapid determination of phenols in aqueous solutions. The electrochemical behavior of different phenols at the graphene/polymer-coated GCE was also investigated. In PBS buffer solution with a pH of 6.5, [...] Read more.
A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) coated with a graphene/polymer film was fabricated for rapid determination of phenols in aqueous solutions. The electrochemical behavior of different phenols at the graphene/polymer-coated GCE was also investigated. In PBS buffer solution with a pH of 6.5, hydroquinone exhibits a well-defined reduction peak at the modified GCE. Based on this, an electrochemical method for the direct determination of phenols is proposed. Investigating different parameters revealed the optimized detection conditions for the electrode are a scan rate of 50 mV/s, dosage of graphene-polyaniline of 8 μL, dosage of tyrosinase of 3 μL, and pH of 6.5. Under the optimal conditions, the reduction peak current varies linearly with the concentration of phenols, with a linear regression equation of I (10−6A) = −4.887 × 10−4C (mol/L)−5.331 × 10−6 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9963 and limit of detection (S/N = 3) of 2.00 × 10−4 mol/L. The electrochemical sensor is also used to detect phenols in actual samples, where it shows great promise for rapid, simple and quantitative detection of phenols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle FTT-MA: A Flexible Time-Triggered Middleware Architecture for Time Sensitive, Resource-Aware AmI Systems
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6229-6253; doi:10.3390/s130506229
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 4 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 13 May 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1441 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is an increasing number of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems that are time-sensitive and resource-aware. From healthcare to building and even home/office automation, it is now common to find systems combining interactive and sensing multimedia traffic with relatively simple sensors and actuators [...] Read more.
There is an increasing number of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems that are time-sensitive and resource-aware. From healthcare to building and even home/office automation, it is now common to find systems combining interactive and sensing multimedia traffic with relatively simple sensors and actuators (door locks, presence detectors, RFIDs, HVAC, information panels, etc.). Many of these are today known as Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). Quite frequently, these systems must be capable of (1) prioritizing different traffic flows (process data, alarms, non-critical data, etc.), (2) synchronizing actions in several distributed devices and, to certain degree, (3) easing resource management (e.g., detecting faulty nodes, managing battery levels, handling overloads, etc.). This work presents FTT-MA, a high-level middleware architecture aimed at easing the design, deployment and operation of such AmI systems. FTT-MA ensures that both functional and non-functional aspects of the applications are met even during reconfiguration stages. The paper also proposes a methodology, together with a design tool, to create this kind of systems. Finally, a sample case study is presented that illustrates the use of the middleware and the methodology proposed in the paper. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development and Testing of a Decision Making Based Method to Adjust Automatically the Harrowing Intensity
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6254-6271; doi:10.3390/s130506254
Received: 15 March 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 3 May 2013 / Published: 13 May 2013
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Abstract
Harrowing is often used to reduce weed competition, generally using a constant intensity across a whole field. The efficacy of weed harrowing in wheat and barley can be optimized, if site-specific conditions of soil, weed infestation and crop growth stage are taken [...] Read more.
Harrowing is often used to reduce weed competition, generally using a constant intensity across a whole field. The efficacy of weed harrowing in wheat and barley can be optimized, if site-specific conditions of soil, weed infestation and crop growth stage are taken into account. This study aimed to develop and test an algorithm to automatically adjust the harrowing intensity by varying the tine angle and number of passes. The field variability of crop leaf cover, weed density and soil density was acquired with geo-referenced sensors to investigate the harrowing selectivity and crop recovery. Crop leaf cover and weed density were assessed using bispectral cameras through differential images analysis. The draught force of the soil opposite to the direction of travel was measured with electronic load cell sensor connected to a rigid tine mounted in front of the harrow. Optimal harrowing intensity levels were derived in previously implemented experiments, based on the weed control efficacy and yield gain. The assessments of crop leaf cover, weed density and soil density were combined via rules with the aforementioned optimal intensities, in a linguistic fuzzy inference system (LFIS). The system was evaluated in two field experiments that compared constant intensities with variable intensities inferred by the system. A higher weed density reduction could be achieved when the harrowing intensity was not kept constant along the cultivated plot. Varying the intensity tended to reduce the crop leaf cover, though slightly improving crop yield. A real-time intensity adjustment with this system is achievable, if the cameras are attached in the front and at the rear or sides of the harrow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor-Based Technologies and Processes in Agriculture and Forestry)
Open AccessArticle Noise Reduction in Brainwaves by Using Both EEG Signals and Frontal Viewing Camera Images
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6272-6294; doi:10.3390/s130506272
Received: 19 March 2013 / Revised: 26 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 13 May 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1972 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been used in various applications, including human–computer interfaces, diagnosis of brain diseases, and measurement of cognitive status. However, EEG signals can be contaminated with noise caused by user’s head movements. Therefore, we propose a new method [...] Read more.
Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been used in various applications, including human–computer interfaces, diagnosis of brain diseases, and measurement of cognitive status. However, EEG signals can be contaminated with noise caused by user’s head movements. Therefore, we propose a new method that combines an EEG acquisition device and a frontal viewing camera to isolate and exclude the sections of EEG data containing these noises. This method is novel in the following three ways. First, we compare the accuracies of detecting head movements based on the features of EEG signals in the frequency and time domains and on the motion features of images captured by the frontal viewing camera. Second, the features of EEG signals in the frequency domain and the motion features captured by the frontal viewing camera are selected as optimal ones. The dimension reduction of the features and feature selection are performed using linear discriminant analysis. Third, the combined features are used as inputs to support vector machine (SVM), which improves the accuracy in detecting head movements. The experimental results show that the proposed method can detect head movements with an average error rate of approximately 3.22%, which is smaller than that of other methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle WEAMR — A Weighted Energy Aware Multipath Reliable Routing Mechanism for Hotline-Based WSNs
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6295-6318; doi:10.3390/s130506295
Received: 12 April 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 13 May 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reliable source to sink communication is the most important factor for an efficient routing protocol especially in domains of military, healthcare and disaster recovery applications. We present weighted energy aware multipath reliable routing (WEAMR), a novel energy aware multipath routing protocol which [...] Read more.
Reliable source to sink communication is the most important factor for an efficient routing protocol especially in domains of military, healthcare and disaster recovery applications. We present weighted energy aware multipath reliable routing (WEAMR), a novel energy aware multipath routing protocol which utilizes hotline-assisted routing to meet such requirements for mission critical applications. The protocol reduces the number of average hops from source to destination and provides unmatched reliability as compared to well known reactive ad hoc protocols i.e., AODV and AOMDV. Our protocol makes efficient use of network paths based on weighted cost calculation and intelligently selects the best possible paths for data transmissions. The path cost calculation considers end to end number of hops, latency and minimum energy node value in the path. In case of path failure path recalculation is done efficiently with minimum latency and control packets overhead. Our evaluation shows that our proposal provides better end-to-end delivery with less routing overhead and higher packet delivery success ratio compared to AODV and AOMDV. The use of multipath also increases overall life time of WSN network using optimum energy available paths between sender and receiver in WDNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Micro-Drilling of Polymer Tubular Ultramicroelectrode Arrays for Electrochemical Sensors
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6319-6333; doi:10.3390/s130506319
Received: 12 March 2013 / Revised: 3 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1712 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a reproducible fast prototyping procedure based on micro-drilling to produce homogeneous tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), a conductive polymer. Arrays of Ø 100 µm tubular electrodes each having a height of 0.37 ± 0.06 µm were reproducibly fabricated. [...] Read more.
We present a reproducible fast prototyping procedure based on micro-drilling to produce homogeneous tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), a conductive polymer. Arrays of Ø 100 µm tubular electrodes each having a height of 0.37 ± 0.06 µm were reproducibly fabricated. The electrode dimensions were analyzed by SEM after deposition of silver dendrites to visualize the electroactive electrode area. The electrochemical applicability of the electrodes was demonstrated by voltammetric and amperometric detection of ferri-/ferrocyanide. Recorded signals were in agreement with results from finite element modelling of the system. The tubular PEDOT ultramicroelectrode arrays were modified by prussian blue to enable the detection of hydrogen peroxide. A linear sensor response was demonstrated for hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.1 mM to 1 mM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Tools in Electrochemical Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle A Ubiquitous NFC Solution for the Development of Tailored Marketing Strategies Based on Discount Vouchers and Loyalty Cards
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6334-6354; doi:10.3390/s130506334
Received: 4 March 2013 / Revised: 15 April 2013 / Accepted: 9 May 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Because of the global economic turmoil, nowadays a lot of companies are adopting a “deal of the day” business model, some of them with great success. Generally, they try to attract and retain customers through discount coupons and gift cards, using, generally, [...] Read more.
Because of the global economic turmoil, nowadays a lot of companies are adopting a “deal of the day” business model, some of them with great success. Generally, they try to attract and retain customers through discount coupons and gift cards, using, generally, traditional distribution media. This paper describes a framework, which integrates intelligent environments by using NFC, oriented to the full management of this kind of businesses. The system is responsible for diffusion, distribution, sourcing, validation, redemption and managing of vouchers, loyalty cards and all kind of mobile coupons using NFC, as well as QR codes. WingBonus can be fully adapted to the requirements of marketing campaigns, voucher providers, shop or retailer infrastructures and mobile devices and purchasing habits. Security of the voucher is granted by the system by synchronizing procedures using secure encriptation algorithms. The WingBonus website and mobile applications can be adapted to any requirement of the system actors. Full article
Open AccessArticle An All Fiber Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer Based on an Air-Microcavity
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6355-6364; doi:10.3390/s130506355
Received: 6 March 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (724 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work an Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) based on an air-microcavity is presented. Here the air microcavity, with silica walls, is formed at a segment of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF), which is fusion spliced with a single mode [...] Read more.
In this work an Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) based on an air-microcavity is presented. Here the air microcavity, with silica walls, is formed at a segment of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF), which is fusion spliced with a single mode fiber (SMF). Moreover, the spectral response of the IFPI is experimentally characterized and some results are provided. Finally, the viability to use the IFPI to implement a simple, compact size, and low cost refractive index sensor is briefly analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystal Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Acoustic Emission Detection of Macro-Cracks on Engraving Tool Steel Inserts during the Injection Molding Cycle Using PZT Sensors
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6365-6379; doi:10.3390/s130506365
Received: 23 March 2013 / Revised: 16 April 2013 / Accepted: 19 April 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an improved monitoring system for the failure detection of engraving tool steel inserts during the injection molding cycle. This system uses acoustic emission PZT sensors mounted through acoustic waveguides on the engraving insert. We were thus able to clearly [...] Read more.
This paper presents an improved monitoring system for the failure detection of engraving tool steel inserts during the injection molding cycle. This system uses acoustic emission PZT sensors mounted through acoustic waveguides on the engraving insert. We were thus able to clearly distinguish the defect through measured AE signals. Two engraving tool steel inserts were tested during the production of standard test specimens, each under the same processing conditions. By closely comparing the captured AE signals on both engraving inserts during the filling and packing stages, we were able to detect the presence of macro-cracks on one engraving insert. Gabor wavelet analysis was used for closer examination of the captured AE signals’ peak amplitudes during the filling and packing stages. The obtained results revealed that such a system could be used successfully as an improved tool for monitoring the integrity of an injection molding process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Accuracy and Robustness of the Leap Motion Controller
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6380-6393; doi:10.3390/s130506380
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 94 | PDF Full-text (27297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Leap Motion Controller is a new device for hand gesture controlled user interfaces with declared sub-millimeter accuracy. However, up to this point its capabilities in real environments have not been analyzed. Therefore, this paper presents a first study of a Leap [...] Read more.
The Leap Motion Controller is a new device for hand gesture controlled user interfaces with declared sub-millimeter accuracy. However, up to this point its capabilities in real environments have not been analyzed. Therefore, this paper presents a first study of a Leap Motion Controller. The main focus of attention is on the evaluation of the accuracy and repeatability. For an appropriate evaluation, a novel experimental setup was developed making use of an industrial robot with a reference pen allowing a position accuracy of 0.2 mm. Thereby, a deviation between a desired 3D position and the average measured positions below 0.2mmhas been obtained for static setups and of 1.2mmfor dynamic setups. Using the conclusion of this analysis can improve the development of applications for the Leap Motion controller in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Performance of a Cyanobacteria Whole Cell-Based Fluorescence Biosensor for Heavy Metal and Pesticide Detection
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6394-6404; doi:10.3390/s130506394
Received: 6 March 2013 / Revised: 10 April 2013 / Accepted: 16 April 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (453 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Whole cell biosensors always face the challenge of low stability of biological components and short storage life. This paper reports the effects of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) immobilization on a whole cell fluorescence biosensor for the detection of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd), [...] Read more.
Whole cell biosensors always face the challenge of low stability of biological components and short storage life. This paper reports the effects of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) immobilization on a whole cell fluorescence biosensor for the detection of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd), and pesticides (dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and chlorpyrifos). The biosensor was produced by entrapping the cyanobacterium Anabaena torulosa on a cellulose membrane, followed by applying a layer of pHEMA, and attaching it to a well. The well was then fixed to an optical probe which was connected to a fluorescence spectrophotometer and an electronic reader. The optimization of the biosensor using several factors such as amount of HEMA and drying temperature were undertaken. The detection limits of biosensor without pHEMA for Cu, Cd, Pb, 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos were 1.195, 0.027, 0.0100, 0.025 and 0.025 µg/L respectively. The presence of pHEMA increased the limits of detection to 1.410, 0.250, 0.500, 0.235 and 0.117 µg/L respectively. pHEMA is known to enhance the reproducibility of the biosensor with average relative standard deviation (RSD) of ±1.76% for all the pollutants tested, 48% better than the biosensor without pHEMA (RSD = ±3.73%). In storability test with Cu 5 µg/L, the biosensor with pHEMA performed 11.5% better than the test without pHEMA on day-10 and 5.2% better on day-25. pHEMA is therefore a good candidate to be used in whole cell biosensors as it increases reproducibility and enhances biosensor storability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Hardware Accelerated Compression of LIDAR Data Using FPGA Devices
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6405-6422; doi:10.3390/s130506405
Received: 30 March 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 3 May 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (842 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) has become a mainstream technology for terrain data acquisition and mapping. High sampling density of LIDAR enables the acquisition of high details of the terrain, but on the other hand, it results in a vast amount [...] Read more.
Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) has become a mainstream technology for terrain data acquisition and mapping. High sampling density of LIDAR enables the acquisition of high details of the terrain, but on the other hand, it results in a vast amount of gathered data, which requires huge storage space as well as substantial processing effort. The data are usually stored in the LAS format which has become the de facto standard for LIDAR data storage and exchange. In the paper, a hardware accelerated compression of LIDAR data is presented. The compression and decompression of LIDAR data is performed by a dedicated FPGA-based circuit and interfaced to the computer via a PCI-E general bus. The hardware compressor consists of three modules: LIDAR data predictor, variable length coder, and arithmetic coder. Hardware compression is considerably faster than software compression, while it also alleviates the processor load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Power Efficient Location-Based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-Upper-Limit for Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6448-6476; doi:10.3390/s130506448
Received: 22 March 2013 / Revised: 3 May 2013 / Accepted: 9 May 2013 / Published: 15 May 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we [...] Read more.
The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle 3D Preoperative Planning in the ER with OsiriX®: When There is No Time for Neuronavigation
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6477-6491; doi:10.3390/s130506477
Received: 1 April 2013 / Revised: 1 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 16 May 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1787 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The evaluation of patients in the emergency room department (ER) through more accurate imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT) has revolutionized their assistance in the early 80s. However, despite technical improvements seen during the last decade, surgical planning in the ER [...] Read more.
The evaluation of patients in the emergency room department (ER) through more accurate imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT) has revolutionized their assistance in the early 80s. However, despite technical improvements seen during the last decade, surgical planning in the ER has not followed the development of image acquisition methods. The authors present their experience with DICOM image processing as a navigation method in the ER. The authors present 18 patients treated in the Emergency Department of the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of Sao Paulo. All patients were submitted to volumetric CT. We present patients with epidural hematomas, acute/subacute subdural hematomas and contusional hematomas. Using a specific program to analyze images in DICOM format (OsiriX®), the authors performed the appropriate surgical planning. The use of 3D surgical planning made it possible to perform procedures more accurately and less invasively, enabling better postoperative outcomes. All sorts of neurosurgical emergency pathologies can be treated appropriately with no waste of time. The three-dimensional processing of images in the preoperative evaluation is easy and possible even within the emergency care. It should be used as a tool to reduce the surgical trauma and it may dispense methods of navigation in many cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical & Biological Imaging)
Open AccessArticle An Easy to Deploy Street Light Control System Based on Wireless Communication and LED Technology
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6492-6523; doi:10.3390/s130506492
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 23 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 16 May 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1981 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an intelligent streetlight management system based on LED lamps, designed to facilitate its deployment in existing facilities. The proposed approach, which is based on wireless communication technologies, will minimize the cost of investment of traditional wired systems, which always [...] Read more.
This paper presents an intelligent streetlight management system based on LED lamps, designed to facilitate its deployment in existing facilities. The proposed approach, which is based on wireless communication technologies, will minimize the cost of investment of traditional wired systems, which always need civil engineering for burying of cable underground and consequently are more expensive than if the connection of the different nodes is made over the air. The deployed solution will be aware of their surrounding’s environmental conditions, a fact that will be approached for the system intelligence in order to learn, and later, apply dynamic rules. The knowledge of real time illumination needs, in terms of instant use of the street in which it is installed, will also feed our system, with the objective of providing tangible solutions to reduce energy consumption according to the contextual needs, an exact calculation of energy consumption and reliable mechanisms for preventive maintenance of facilities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mobile Monitoring and Reasoning Methods to Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6524-6541; doi:10.3390/s130506524
Received: 25 March 2013 / Revised: 10 May 2013 / Accepted: 10 May 2013 / Published: 16 May 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (834 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the recent technological advances, it is possible to monitor vital signs using Bluetooth-enabled biometric mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets or electric wristbands. In this manuscript, we present a system to estimate the risk of cardiovascular diseases in Ambient Assisted Living [...] Read more.
With the recent technological advances, it is possible to monitor vital signs using Bluetooth-enabled biometric mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets or electric wristbands. In this manuscript, we present a system to estimate the risk of cardiovascular diseases in Ambient Assisted Living environments. Cardiovascular disease risk is obtained from the monitoring of the blood pressure by means of mobile devices in combination with other clinical factors, and applying reasoning techniques based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project charts. We have developed an end-to-end software application for patients and physicians and a rule-based reasoning engine. We have also proposed a conceptual module to integrate recommendations to patients in their daily activities based on information proactively inferred through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the platform, we carried out usability experiments and performance benchmarks. Full article
Open AccessArticle Using a Fiber Loop and Fiber Bragg Grating as a Fiber Optic Sensor to Simultaneously Measure Temperature and Displacement
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6542-6551; doi:10.3390/s130506542
Received: 8 April 2013 / Revised: 18 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 16 May 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module [...] Read more.
This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with FBG affixed to the module, and, consequently, the center wavelength displacement of FBG was limited by only the effects of temperature change. Displacement and temperature were determined by measuring changes in the transmission of optical power and shifts in Bragg wavelength. This study provides a simple and economical method to measure displacement and temperature simultaneously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optomechatronics) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Study on a Real-Time BEAM System for Diagnosis Assistance Based on a System on Chips Design
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6552-6577; doi:10.3390/s130506552
Received: 1 April 2013 / Revised: 17 April 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 16 May 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As an innovative as well as an interdisciplinary research project, this study performed an analysis of brain signals so as to establish BrainIC as an auxiliary tool for physician diagnosis. Cognition behavior sciences, embedded technology, system on chips (SOC) design and physiological [...] Read more.
As an innovative as well as an interdisciplinary research project, this study performed an analysis of brain signals so as to establish BrainIC as an auxiliary tool for physician diagnosis. Cognition behavior sciences, embedded technology, system on chips (SOC) design and physiological signal processing are integrated in this work. Moreover, a chip is built for real-time electroencephalography (EEG) processing purposes and a Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) system, and a knowledge database is constructed to diagnose psychosis and body challenges in learning various behaviors and signals antithesis by a fuzzy inference engine. This work is completed with a medical support system developed for the mentally disabled or the elderly abled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Soft, Transparent, Electronic Skin for Distributed and Multiple Pressure Sensing
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6578-6604; doi:10.3390/s130506578
Received: 23 March 2013 / Revised: 19 April 2013 / Accepted: 3 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1149 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we present a new optical, flexible pressure sensor that can be applied as smart skin to a robot or to consumer electronic devices. We describe a mechano-optical transduction principle that can allow the encoding of information related to an [...] Read more.
In this paper we present a new optical, flexible pressure sensor that can be applied as smart skin to a robot or to consumer electronic devices. We describe a mechano-optical transduction principle that can allow the encoding of information related to an externally applied mechanical stimulus, e.g., contact, pressure and shape of contact. The physical embodiment that we present in this work is an electronic skin consisting of eight infrared emitters and eight photo-detectors coupled together and embedded in a planar PDMS waveguide of 5.5 cm diameter. When a contact occurs on the sensing area, the optical signals reaching the peripheral detectors experience a loss because of the Frustrated Total Internal Reflection and deformation of the material. The light signal is converted to electrical signal through an electronic system and a reconstruction algorithm running on a computer reconstructs the pressure map. Pilot experiments are performed to validate the tactile sensing principle by applying external pressures up to 160 kPa. Moreover, the capabilities of the electronic skin to detect contact pressure at multiple subsequent positions, as well as its function on curved surfaces, are validated. A weight sensitivity of 0.193 gr−1 was recorded, thus making the electronic skin suitable to detect pressures in the order of few grams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optomechatronics) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Radar Tracking with an Interacting Multiple Model and Probabilistic Data Association Filter for Civil Aviation Applications
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6636-6650; doi:10.3390/s130506636
Received: 22 March 2013 / Revised: 14 May 2013 / Accepted: 15 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current trend of the civil aviation technology is to modernize the legacy air traffic control (ATC) system that is mainly supported by many ground based navigation aids to be the new air traffic management (ATM) system that is enabled by global [...] Read more.
The current trend of the civil aviation technology is to modernize the legacy air traffic control (ATC) system that is mainly supported by many ground based navigation aids to be the new air traffic management (ATM) system that is enabled by global positioning system (GPS) technology. Due to the low receiving power of GPS signal, it is a major concern to aviation authorities that the operation of the ATM system might experience service interruption when the GPS signal is jammed by either intentional or unintentional radio-frequency interference. To maintain the normal operation of the ATM system during the period of GPS outage, the use of the current radar system is proposed in this paper. However, the tracking performance of the current radar system could not meet the required performance of the ATM system, and an enhanced tracking algorithm, the interacting multiple model and probabilistic data association filter (IMMPDAF), is therefore developed to support the navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system. The conventional radar tracking algorithm, the nearest neighbor Kalman filter (NNKF), is used as the baseline to evaluate the proposed radar tracking algorithm, and the real flight data is used to validate the IMMPDAF algorithm. As shown in the results, the proposed IMMPDAF algorithm could enhance the tracking performance of the current aviation radar system and meets the required performance of the new ATM system. Thus, the current radar system with the IMMPDAF algorithm could be used as an alternative system to continue aviation navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system during GPS outage periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Identifying Time Measurement Tampering in the Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA) Wormhole Detection Algorithm
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6651-6668; doi:10.3390/s130506651
Received: 27 March 2013 / Revised: 9 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA) is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing [...] Read more.
Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA) is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM) wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ∆T Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ∆T Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Fast Estimation of Strains for Cross-Beams Six-Axis Force/Torque Sensors by Mechanical Modeling
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6669-6686; doi:10.3390/s130506669
Received: 27 February 2013 / Revised: 10 May 2013 / Accepted: 15 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Strain distributions are crucial criteria of cross-beams six-axis force/torque sensors. The conventional method for calculating the criteria is to utilize Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to get numerical solutions. This paper aims to obtain analytical solutions of strains under the effect of external [...] Read more.
Strain distributions are crucial criteria of cross-beams six-axis force/torque sensors. The conventional method for calculating the criteria is to utilize Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to get numerical solutions. This paper aims to obtain analytical solutions of strains under the effect of external force/torque in each dimension. Genetic mechanical models for cross-beams six-axis force/torque sensors are proposed, in which deformable cross elastic beams and compliant beams are modeled as quasi-static Timoshenko beam. A detailed description of model assumptions, model idealizations, application scope and model establishment is presented. The results are validated by both numerical FEA simulations and calibration experiments, and test results are found to be compatible with each other for a wide range of geometric properties. The proposed analytical solutions are demonstrated to be an accurate estimation algorithm with higher efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle IPv6 Addressing Proxy: Mapping Native Addressing from Legacy Technologies and Devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6)
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6687-6712; doi:10.3390/s130506687
Received: 19 March 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 10 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (3565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order [...] Read more.
Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol Sensors 2013, 13 6688 card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6. Full article
Open AccessArticle Reset Tree-Based Optical Fault Detection
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6713-6729; doi:10.3390/s130506713
Received: 9 April 2013 / Revised: 12 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we present a new reset tree-based scheme to protect cryptographic hardware against optical fault injection attacks. As one of the most powerful invasive attacks on cryptographic hardware, optical fault attacks cause semiconductors to misbehave by injecting high-energy light into [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a new reset tree-based scheme to protect cryptographic hardware against optical fault injection attacks. As one of the most powerful invasive attacks on cryptographic hardware, optical fault attacks cause semiconductors to misbehave by injecting high-energy light into a decapped integrated circuit. The contaminated result from the affected chip is then used to reveal secret information, such as a key, from the cryptographic hardware. Since the advent of such attacks, various countermeasures have been proposed. Although most of these countermeasures are strong, there is still the possibility of attack. In this paper, we present a novel optical fault detection scheme that utilizes the buffers on a circuit’s reset signal tree as a fault detection sensor. To evaluate our proposal, we model radiation-induced currents into circuit components and perform a SPICE simulation. The proposed scheme is expected to be used as a supplemental security tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle On the Selection of Non-Invasive Methods Based on Speech Analysis Oriented to Automatic Alzheimer Disease Diagnosis
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6730-6745; doi:10.3390/s130506730
Received: 15 April 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The work presented here is part of a larger study to identify novel technologies and biomarkers for early Alzheimer disease (AD) detection and it focuses on evaluating the suitability of a new approach for early AD diagnosis by non-invasive methods. The purpose [...] Read more.
The work presented here is part of a larger study to identify novel technologies and biomarkers for early Alzheimer disease (AD) detection and it focuses on evaluating the suitability of a new approach for early AD diagnosis by non-invasive methods. The purpose is to examine in a pilot study the potential of applying intelligent algorithms to speech features obtained from suspected patients in order to contribute to the improvement of diagnosis of AD and its degree of severity. In this sense, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been used for the automatic classification of the two classes (AD and control subjects). Two human issues have been analyzed for feature selection: Spontaneous Speech and Emotional Response. Not only linear features but also non-linear ones, such as Fractal Dimension, have been explored. The approach is non invasive, low cost and without any side effects. Obtained experimental results were very satisfactory and promising for early diagnosis and classification of AD patients. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Deformed Shape Monitoring Model for Building Structures Based on a 2D Laser Scanner
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6746-6758; doi:10.3390/s130506746
Received: 18 March 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (793 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-rise buildings subjected to lateral loads such as wind and earthquake loads must be checked not to exceed the limits on the maximum lateral displacement or the maximum inter-story drift ratios. In this paper, a sensing model for deformed shapes of a [...] Read more.
High-rise buildings subjected to lateral loads such as wind and earthquake loads must be checked not to exceed the limits on the maximum lateral displacement or the maximum inter-story drift ratios. In this paper, a sensing model for deformed shapes of a building structure in motion is presented. The deformed shape sensing model based on a 2D scanner consists of five modules: (1) module for acquiring coordinate information of a point in a building; (2) module for coordinate transformation and data arrangement for generation of time history of the point; (3) module for smoothing by adjacent averaging technique; (4) module for generation of the displacement history for each story and deformed shape of a building, and (5) module for evaluation of the serviceability of a building. The feasibility of the sensing model based on a 2D laser scanner is tested through free vibration tests of a three-story steel frame structure with a relatively high slenderness ratio of 5.0. Free vibration responses measured from both laser displacement sensors and a 2D laser scanner are compared. In the experimentation, the deformed shapes were obtained from three different methods: the model based on the 2D laser scanner, the direct measurement based on laser displacement sensors, and the numerical method using acceleration data and the displacements from GPS. As a result, it is confirmed that the deformed shape measurement model based on a 2D laser scanner can be a promising alternative for high-rise buildings where installation of laser displacement sensors is impossible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Development of Amperometric Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Tyrosinase-Conducting Polymer Composite Electrodes
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6759-6774; doi:10.3390/s130506759
Received: 18 March 2013 / Revised: 25 April 2013 / Accepted: 28 April 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (903 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bio-composite coatings consisting of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and tyrosinase (Ty) were successfully electrodeposited on conventional size gold (Au) disk electrodes and microelectrode arrays using sinusoidal voltages. Electrochemical polymerization of the corresponding monomer was carried out in the presence of various Ty amounts in [...] Read more.
Bio-composite coatings consisting of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and tyrosinase (Ty) were successfully electrodeposited on conventional size gold (Au) disk electrodes and microelectrode arrays using sinusoidal voltages. Electrochemical polymerization of the corresponding monomer was carried out in the presence of various Ty amounts in aqueous buffered solutions. The bio-composite coatings prepared using sinusoidal voltages and potentiostatic electrodeposition methods were compared in terms of morphology, electrochemical properties, and biocatalytic activity towards various analytes. The amperometric biosensors were tested in dopamine (DA) and catechol (CT) electroanalysis in aqueous buffered solutions. The analytical performance of the developed biosensors was investigated in terms of linear response range, detection limit, sensitivity, and repeatability. A semi-quantitative multi-analyte procedure for simultaneous determination of DA and CT was developed. The amperometric biosensor prepared using sinusoidal voltages showed much better analytical performance. The Au disk biosensor obtained by 50 mV alternating voltage amplitude displayed a linear response for DA concentrations ranging from 10 to 300 μM, with a detection limit of 4.18 μM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultramicroelectrode Electrochemistry - Theory and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle A Fully Integrated Sensor SoC with Digital Calibration Hardware and Wireless Transceiver at 2.4 GHz
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6775-6792; doi:10.3390/s130506775
Received: 12 April 2013 / Revised: 14 May 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
PDF Full-text (6844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A single-chip sensor system-on-a-chip (SoC) that implements radio for 2.4 GHz, complete digital baseband physical layer (PHY), 10-bit sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter and dedicated sensor calibration hardware for industrial sensing systems has been proposed and integrated in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The transceiver’s [...] Read more.
A single-chip sensor system-on-a-chip (SoC) that implements radio for 2.4 GHz, complete digital baseband physical layer (PHY), 10-bit sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter and dedicated sensor calibration hardware for industrial sensing systems has been proposed and integrated in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The transceiver’s building block includes a low-noise amplifier, mixer, channel filter, receiver signal-strength indicator, frequency synthesizer, voltage-controlled oscillator, and power amplifier. In addition, the digital building block consists of offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) modulation, demodulation, carrier frequency offset compensation, auto-gain control, digital MAC function, sensor calibration hardware and embedded 8-bit microcontroller. The digital MAC function supports cyclic redundancy check (CRC), inter-symbol timing check, MAC frame control, and automatic retransmission. The embedded sensor signal processing block consists of calibration coefficient calculator, sensing data calibration mapper and sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter with digital decimation filter. The sensitivity of the overall receiver and the error vector magnitude (EVM) of the overall transmitter are −99 dBm and 18.14%, respectively. The proposed calibration scheme has a reduction of errors by about 45.4% compared with the improved progressive polynomial calibration (PPC) method and the maximum current consumption of the SoC is 16 mA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Design of a Single-Cell Positioning Controller Using Electroosmotic Flow and Image Processing
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6793-6810; doi:10.3390/s130506793
Received: 6 February 2013 / Revised: 10 April 2013 / Accepted: 16 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
PDF Full-text (882 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the current research was not only to provide a fast and automatic positioning platform for single cells, but also improved biomolecular manipulation techniques. In this study, an automatic platform for cell positioning using electroosmotic flow and image processing technology [...] Read more.
The objective of the current research was not only to provide a fast and automatic positioning platform for single cells, but also improved biomolecular manipulation techniques. In this study, an automatic platform for cell positioning using electroosmotic flow and image processing technology was designed. The platform was developed using a PCI image acquisition interface card for capturing images from a microscope and then transferring them to a computer using human-machine interface software. This software was designed by the Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench, a graphical language for finding cell positions and viewing the driving trace, and the fuzzy logic method for controlling the voltage or time of an electric field. After experiments on real human leukemic cells (U-937), the success of the cell positioning rate achieved by controlling the voltage factor reaches 100% within 5 s. A greater precision is obtained when controlling the time factor, whereby the success rate reaches 100% within 28 s. Advantages in both high speed and high precision are attained if these two voltage and time control methods are combined. The control speed with the combined method is about 5.18 times greater than that achieved by the time method, and the control precision with the combined method is more than five times greater than that achieved by the voltage method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Sensor Platform Matching the Improved Version of IPMVP Option C for Measuring Energy Savings
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6811-6831; doi:10.3390/s130506811
Received: 22 March 2013 / Revised: 6 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 22 May 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is easy to measure energy consumption with a power meter. However, energy savings cannot be directly computed by the powers measured using existing power meter technologies, since the power consumption only reflects parts of the real energy flows. The International Performance [...] Read more.
It is easy to measure energy consumption with a power meter. However, energy savings cannot be directly computed by the powers measured using existing power meter technologies, since the power consumption only reflects parts of the real energy flows. The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) was proposed by the Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) to quantify energy savings using four different methodologies of A, B, C and D. Although energy savings can be estimated following the IPMVP, there are limitations on its practical implementation. Moreover, the data processing methods of the four IPMVP alternatives use multiple sensors (thermometer, hygrometer, Occupant information) and power meter readings to simulate all facilities, in order to determine an energy usage benchmark and the energy savings. This study proposes a simple sensor platform to measure energy savings. Using usually the Electronic Product Code (EPC) global standard, an architecture framework for an information system is constructed that integrates sensors data, power meter readings and occupancy conditions. The proposed sensor platform is used to monitor a building with a newly built vertical garden system (VGS). A VGS shields solar radiation and saves on energy that would be expended on air-conditioning. With this platform, the amount of energy saved in the whole facility is measured and reported in real-time. The data are compared with those obtained from detailed measurement and verification (M&V) processes. The discrepancy is less than 1.565%. Using measurements from the proposed sensor platform, the energy savings for the entire facility are quantified, with a resolution of ±1.2%. The VGS gives an 8.483% daily electricity saving for the building. Thus, the results show that the simple sensor platform proposed by this study is more widely applicable than the four complicated IPMVP alternatives and the VGS is an effective tool in reducing the carbon footprint of a building. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle A Human ECG Identification System Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6832-6864; doi:10.3390/s130506832
Received: 12 March 2013 / Revised: 12 April 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 22 May 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (747 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a human electrocardiogram (ECG) identification system based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is designed. A robust preprocessing method comprising noise elimination, heartbeat normalization and quality measurement is proposed to eliminate the effects of noise and heart rate variability. [...] Read more.
In this paper, a human electrocardiogram (ECG) identification system based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is designed. A robust preprocessing method comprising noise elimination, heartbeat normalization and quality measurement is proposed to eliminate the effects of noise and heart rate variability. The system is independent of the heart rate. The ECG signal is decomposed into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and Welch spectral analysis is used to extract the significant heartbeat signal features. Principal component analysis is used reduce the dimensionality of the feature space, and the K-nearest neighbors (K-NN) method is applied as the classifier tool. The proposed human ECG identification system was tested on standard MIT-BIH ECG databases: the ST change database, the long-term ST database, and the PTB database. The system achieved an identification accuracy of 95% for 90 subjects, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of accuracy and robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Highly Specific and Cost-Efficient Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A Combining Aptamers with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6865-6881; doi:10.3390/s130506865
Received: 3 April 2013 / Revised: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 17 May 2013 / Published: 22 May 2013
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a panel of single-stranded DNA aptamers with high affinity and specificity against Salmonella Paratyphi A was selected from an enriched oligonucleotide pool by a whole-cell-Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) procedure, during which four other Salmonella serovars [...] Read more.
In this paper, a panel of single-stranded DNA aptamers with high affinity and specificity against Salmonella Paratyphi A was selected from an enriched oligonucleotide pool by a whole-cell-Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) procedure, during which four other Salmonella serovars were used as counter-selection targets. It was determined through a fluorescence assay that the selected aptamers had high binding ability and specificity to this pathogen. The dissociation constant of these aptamers were up to nanomolar range, and aptamer Apt22 with the lowest Kd (47 ± 3 nM) was used in cell imaging experiments. To detect this bacteria with high specificity and cost-efficiently, a novel useful detection method was also constructed based on the noncovalent self-assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and DNAzyme-labeled aptamer detection probes. The amounts of target bacteria could be quantified by exploiting chemoluminescence intensity changes at 420 nm and the detection limit of the method was 103 cfu/mL. This study demonstrated the applicability of Salmonella specific aptamers and their potential for use in the detection of Salmonella in food, clinical and environmental samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)

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Open AccessReview A Survey of Body Sensor Networks
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5406-5447; doi:10.3390/s130505406
Received: 19 December 2012 / Revised: 12 April 2013 / Accepted: 19 April 2013 / Published: 24 April 2013
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (475 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The technology of sensor, pervasive computing, and intelligent information processing is widely used in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), which are a branch of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). BSNs are playing an increasingly important role in the fields of medical treatment, social welfare [...] Read more.
The technology of sensor, pervasive computing, and intelligent information processing is widely used in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), which are a branch of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). BSNs are playing an increasingly important role in the fields of medical treatment, social welfare and sports, and are changing the way humans use computers. Existing surveys have placed emphasis on the concept and architecture of BSNs, signal acquisition, context-aware sensing, and system technology, while this paper will focus on sensor, data fusion, and network communication. And we will introduce the research status of BSNs, the analysis of hotspots, and future development trends, the discussion of major challenges and technical problems facing currently. The typical research projects and practical application of BSNs are introduced as well. BSNs are progressing along the direction of multi-technology integration and intelligence. Although there are still many problems, the future of BSNs is fundamentally promising, profoundly changing the human-machine relationships and improving the quality of people’s lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessReview Nanostructured Surfaces and Detection Instrumentation for Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5561-5584; doi:10.3390/s130505561
Received: 21 February 2013 / Revised: 26 March 2013 / Accepted: 27 March 2013 / Published: 26 April 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photonic crystal (PC) surfaces have been demonstrated as a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics and life science research. PCs can be engineered to support optical resonances at specific wavelengths at which strong electromagnetic [...] Read more.
Photonic crystal (PC) surfaces have been demonstrated as a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics and life science research. PCs can be engineered to support optical resonances at specific wavelengths at which strong electromagnetic fields are utilized to enhance the intensity of surface-bound fluorophore excitation. Meanwhile, the leaky resonant modes of PCs can be used to direct emitted photons within a narrow range of angles for more efficient collection by a fluorescence detection system. The multiplicative effects of enhanced excitation combined with enhanced photon extraction combine to provide improved signal-to-noise ratios for detection of fluorescent emitters, which in turn can be used to reduce the limits of detection of low concentration analytes, such as disease biomarker proteins. Fabrication of PCs using inexpensive manufacturing methods and materials that include replica molding on plastic, nano-imprint lithography on quartz substrates result in devices that are practical for single-use disposable applications. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity fluorescence detection in the context of molecular diagnosis and gene expression analysis though the use of PC surfaces. Recent efforts to improve the design and fabrication of PCs and their associated detection instrumentation are summarized, including the use of PCs coupled with Fabry-Perot cavities and external cavity lasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystal Sensors)
Open AccessReview Microbial Biosensors: Engineered Microorganisms as the Sensing Machinery
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5777-5795; doi:10.3390/s130505777
Received: 11 March 2013 / Revised: 18 April 2013 / Accepted: 3 May 2013 / Published: 6 May 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (1868 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Whole-cell biosensors are a good alternative to enzyme-based biosensors since they offer the benefits of low cost and improved stability. In recent years, live cells have been employed as biosensors for a wide range of targets. In this review, we will focus [...] Read more.
Whole-cell biosensors are a good alternative to enzyme-based biosensors since they offer the benefits of low cost and improved stability. In recent years, live cells have been employed as biosensors for a wide range of targets. In this review, we will focus on the use of microorganisms that are genetically modified with the desirable outputs in order to improve the biosensor performance. Different methodologies based on genetic/protein engineering and synthetic biology to construct microorganisms with the required signal outputs, sensitivity, and selectivity will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Live Cell-Based Sensors)
Open AccessReview Current Trends in Wireless Mesh Sensor Networks: A Review of Competing Approaches
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5958-5995; doi:10.3390/s130505958
Received: 27 March 2013 / Revised: 30 April 2013 / Accepted: 2 May 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Finding a complete mesh-based solution for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs) is still an open issue. To cope with this concern, different competing approaches have emerged in the Wireless Mesh Sensor Networks (WMSNs) field in the last few years. They are [...] Read more.
Finding a complete mesh-based solution for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs) is still an open issue. To cope with this concern, different competing approaches have emerged in the Wireless Mesh Sensor Networks (WMSNs) field in the last few years. They are usually supported by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, the most commonly adopted LR-WPAN recommendation for point-to-point topologies. In this work, we review the most relevant and up-to-date WMSN solutions that extend the IEEE 802.15.4 standard to multi-hop mesh networks. To conduct this review, we start by identifying the most significant WMSN requirements (i.e., interoperability, robustness, scalability, mobility or energy-efficiency) that reveal the benefits and shortcomings of each proposal. Then, we re-examine thoroughly the group of proposals following different design guidelines which are usually considered by end-users and developers. Among all of the approaches reviewed, we highlight the IEEE 802.15.5 standard, a recent recommendation that, in its LR-WPAN version, fully satisfies the greatest number of WMSN requirements. As a result, IEEE 802.15.5 can be an appropriate solution for a wide-range of applications, unlike the majority of the remaining solutions reviewed, which are usually designed to solve particular problems, for instance in the home, building and industrial sectors. In this sense, a description of IEEE 802.15.5 is also included, paying special attention to its efficient energy-saving mechanisms. Finally, possible improvements of this recommendation are pointed out in order to offer hints for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessReview Sensing Solutions for Collecting Spatio-Temporal Data for Wildlife Monitoring Applications: A Review
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6054-6088; doi:10.3390/s130506054
Received: 23 February 2013 / Revised: 18 April 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (889 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Movement ecology is a field which places movement as a basis for understanding animal behavior. To realize this concept, ecologists rely on data collection technologies providing spatio-temporal data in order to analyze movement. Recently, wireless sensor networks have offered new opportunities for [...] Read more.
Movement ecology is a field which places movement as a basis for understanding animal behavior. To realize this concept, ecologists rely on data collection technologies providing spatio-temporal data in order to analyze movement. Recently, wireless sensor networks have offered new opportunities for data collection from remote places through multi-hop communication and collaborative capability of the nodes. Several technologies can be used in such networks for sensing purposes and for collecting spatio-temporal data from animals. In this paper, we investigate and review technological solutions which can be used for collecting data for wildlife monitoring. Our aim is to provide an overview of different sensing technologies used for wildlife monitoring and to review their capabilities in terms of data they provide for modeling movement behavior of animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessReview Plant-Derived Natural Products as Sources of Anti-Quorum Sensing Compounds
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6217-6228; doi:10.3390/s130506217
Received: 22 March 2013 / Revised: 28 April 2013 / Accepted: 2 May 2013 / Published: 13 May 2013
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quorum sensing is a system of stimuli and responses in relation to bacterial cell population density that regulates gene expression, including virulence determinants. Consequently, quorum sensing has been an attractive target for the development of novel anti-infective measures that do not rely [...] Read more.
Quorum sensing is a system of stimuli and responses in relation to bacterial cell population density that regulates gene expression, including virulence determinants. Consequently, quorum sensing has been an attractive target for the development of novel anti-infective measures that do not rely on the use of antibiotics. Anti-quorum sensing has been a promising strategy to combat bacterial infections as it is unlikely to develop multidrug resistant pathogens since it does not impose any selection pressure. A number of anti-quorum sensing approaches have been documented and plant-based natural products have been extensively studied in this context. Plant matter is one of the major sources of chemicals in use today in various industries, ranging from the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food biotechnology to the textile industries. Just like animals and humans, plants are constantly exposed to bacterial infections, it is therefore logical to expect that plants have developed sophisticated of chemical mechanisms to combat pathogens. In this review, we have surveyed the various types of plant-based natural products that exhibit anti-quorum sensing properties and their anti-quorum sensing mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Open AccessReview Biosensors in Clinical Practice: Focus on Oncohematology
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6423-6447; doi:10.3390/s130506423
Received: 6 March 2013 / Revised: 15 April 2013 / Accepted: 18 April 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biosensors are devices that are capable of detecting specific biological analytes and converting their presence or concentration into some electrical, thermal, optical or other signal that can be easily analysed. The first biosensor was designed by Clark and Lyons in 1962 as [...] Read more.
Biosensors are devices that are capable of detecting specific biological analytes and converting their presence or concentration into some electrical, thermal, optical or other signal that can be easily analysed. The first biosensor was designed by Clark and Lyons in 1962 as a means of measuring glucose. Since then, much progress has been made and the applications of biosensors are today potentially boundless. This review is limited to their clinical applications, particularly in the field of oncohematology. Biosensors have recently been developed in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients affected by hematological malignancies, such as the biosensor for assessing the in vitro pre-treatment efficacy of cytarabine in acute myeloid leukemia, and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensor for assessing the efficacy of imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia. The review also considers the challenges and future perspectives of biosensors in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Live Cell-Based Sensors)
Open AccessReview Evolution of Electroencephalogram Signal Analysis Techniques during Anesthesia
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6605-6635; doi:10.3390/s130506605
Received: 26 March 2013 / Revised: 6 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1094 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biosignal analysis is one of the most important topics that researchers have tried to develop during the last century to understand numerous human diseases. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) are one of the techniques which provides an electrical representation of biosignals that reflect changes in [...] Read more.
Biosignal analysis is one of the most important topics that researchers have tried to develop during the last century to understand numerous human diseases. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) are one of the techniques which provides an electrical representation of biosignals that reflect changes in the activity of the human brain. Monitoring the levels of anesthesia is a very important subject, which has been proposed to avoid both patient awareness caused by inadequate dosage of anesthetic drugs and excessive use of anesthesia during surgery. This article reviews the bases of these techniques and their development within the last decades and provides a synopsis of the relevant methodologies and algorithms that are used to analyze EEG signals. In addition, it aims to present some of the physiological background of the EEG signal, developments in EEG signal processing, and the effective methods used to remove various types of noise. This review will hopefully increase efforts to develop methods that use EEG signals for determining and classifying the depth of anesthesia with a high data rate to produce a flexible and reliable detection device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)

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