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Sensors 2013, 13(4), 4258-4271; doi:10.3390/s130404258

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Multivariate Analysis for Identification of Different Vegetable Oils Used in Biodiesel Production

1
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Sistemas e Processos Industriais, Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC), Av. Independência, 2293, CEP 96815-900, Santa Cruz do Sul–RS, Brasil
2
Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre–RS, Brasil
3
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Tecnologia Ambiental, Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC), Av. Independência, 2293, CEP 96815-900, Santa Cruz do Sul–RS, Brasil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 January 2013 / Revised: 8 March 2013 / Accepted: 22 March 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources—canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans—were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interval principal component analysis (iPCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples.
Keywords: HCA; iPCA; SIMCA; UATR sensor; biodiesel; raw material; quality contro HCA; iPCA; SIMCA; UATR sensor; biodiesel; raw material; quality contro
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mueller, D.; Ferrão, M.F.; Marder, L.; da Costa, A.B.; de Cássia de Souza Schneider, R. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Multivariate Analysis for Identification of Different Vegetable Oils Used in Biodiesel Production. Sensors 2013, 13, 4258-4271.

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