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Sensors 2013, 13(2), 1477-1489; doi:10.3390/s130201477
Article

Nanobiosensors Based on Chemically Modified AFM Probes: A Useful Tool for Metsulfuron-Methyl Detection

1
, 1,* , 1
, 2
, 2
, 2
 and 1,*
1 Multidisciplinary Laboratory of Nanoneurobiophysics, Nanoneurobiophysics Research Group, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics, Federal University of São Carlos, CP 3031, Sorocaba-SP, 18052-780, Brazil 2 Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biotechnology of Bioluminescence, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics, Federal University of São Carlos, CP 3031, Sorocaba-SP, 18052-780, Brazil
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 November 2012 / Revised: 6 January 2013 / Accepted: 6 January 2013 / Published: 24 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymatic Biosensors)
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Abstract

The use of agrochemicals has increased considerably in recent years, and consequently, there has been increased exposure of ecosystems and human populations to these highly toxic compounds. The study and development of methodologies to detect these substances with greater sensitivity has become extremely relevant. This article describes, for the first time, the use of atomic force spectroscopy (AFS) in the detection of enzyme-inhibiting herbicides. A nanobiosensor based on an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip functionalised with the acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme was developed and characterised. The herbicide metsulfuron-methyl, an ALS inhibitor, was successfully detected through the acquisition of force curves using this biosensor. The adhesion force values were considerably higher when the biosensor was used. An increase of ~250% was achieved relative to the adhesion force using an unfunctionalised AFM tip. This considerable increase was the result of a specific interaction between the enzyme and the herbicide, which was primarily responsible for the efficiency of the nanobiosensor. These results indicate that this methodology is promising for the detection of herbicides, pesticides, and other environmental contaminants.
Keywords: enzymes; herbicides; nanobiosensors; atomic force microscopy; atomic force spectroscopy; acetolactate synthase; chemical force microscopy enzymes; herbicides; nanobiosensors; atomic force microscopy; atomic force spectroscopy; acetolactate synthase; chemical force microscopy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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da Silva, A.C.N.; Deda, D.K.; da Róz, A.L.; Prado, R.A.; Carvalho, C.C.; Viviani, V.; Leite, F.L. Nanobiosensors Based on Chemically Modified AFM Probes: A Useful Tool for Metsulfuron-Methyl Detection. Sensors 2013, 13, 1477-1489.

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