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A Hybrid Path-Oriented Code Assignment CDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
Department of Information Science & Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
School of Electronic Information, Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai 200240, China
Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06029, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2013; in revised form: 23 October 2013 / Accepted: 23 October 2013 / Published: 4 November 2013
Abstract: Due to the characteristics of underwater acoustic channel, media access control (MAC) protocols designed for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) are quite different from those for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Moreover, in a sink-oriented network with event information generation in a sensor field and message forwarding to the sink hop-by-hop, the sensors near the sink have to transmit more packets than those far from the sink, and then a funneling effect occurs, which leads to packet congestion, collisions and losses, especially in UWASNs with long propagation delays. An improved CDMA-based MAC protocol, named path-oriented code assignment (POCA) CDMA MAC (POCA-CDMA-MAC), is proposed for UWASNs in this paper. In the proposed MAC protocol, both the round-robin method and CDMA technology are adopted to make the sink receive packets from multiple paths simultaneously. Since the number of paths for information gathering is much less than that of nodes, the length of the spreading code used in the POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol is shorter greatly than that used in the CDMA-based protocols with transmitter-oriented code assignment (TOCA) or receiver-oriented code assignment (ROCA). Simulation results show that the proposed POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol achieves a higher network throughput and a lower end-to-end delay compared to other CDMA-based MAC protocols.
Keywords: underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs); path-oriented code assignment (POCA); POCA-CDMA-MAC; round-robin; funneling effect
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Chen, H.; Fan, G.; Xie, L.; Cui, J.-H. A Hybrid Path-Oriented Code Assignment CDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. Sensors 2013, 13, 15006-15025.
Chen H, Fan G, Xie L, Cui J-H. A Hybrid Path-Oriented Code Assignment CDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. Sensors. 2013; 13(11):15006-15025.
Chen, Huifang; Fan, Guangyu; Xie, Lei; Cui, Jun-Hong. 2013. "A Hybrid Path-Oriented Code Assignment CDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks." Sensors 13, no. 11: 15006-15025.