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Sensors 2013, 13(1), 334-366; doi:10.3390/s130100334
Review

Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging

1,* , 1
, 2
, 1
 and 3,4
Received: 13 October 2012; in revised form: 5 December 2012 / Accepted: 6 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy 2012)
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Abstract: Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging.
Keywords: adaptive optical systems; optical sensors; biomedical imaging techniques; eye adaptive optical systems; optical sensors; biomedical imaging techniques; eye
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lombardo, M.; Serrao, S.; Devaney, N.; Parravano, M.; Lombardo, G. Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging. Sensors 2013, 13, 334-366.

AMA Style

Lombardo M, Serrao S, Devaney N, Parravano M, Lombardo G. Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging. Sensors. 2013; 13(1):334-366.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lombardo, Marco; Serrao, Sebastiano; Devaney, Nicholas; Parravano, Mariacristina; Lombardo, Giuseppe. 2013. "Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging." Sensors 13, no. 1: 334-366.



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