Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Geometry Documentation and Construction Management of Highway Tunnels during Excavation
School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 I Polytechniou Str., Zographou, Athens 15780, Greece
Received: 19 June 2012; in revised form: 20 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Abstract: Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer software and data processing capabilities, terrestrial laser scanning has recently proved a revolutionary technique for high accuracy, 3D mapping and documentation of physical scenarios and man-made structures. Particularly, this is of great importance in the underground space and tunnel construction environment as surveying engineering operations have a great impact on both technical and economic aspects of a project. This paper discusses the use and explores the potential of laser scanning technology to accurately track excavation and construction activities of highway tunnels. It provides a detailed overview of the static laser scanning method, its principles of operation and applications for tunnel construction operations. Also, it discusses the planning, execution, data processing and analysis phases of laser scanning activities, with emphasis given on geo-referencing, mesh model generation and cross-section extraction. Specific case studies are considered based on two construction sites in Greece. Particularly, the potential of the method is examined for checking the tunnel profile, producing volume computations and validating the smoothness/thickness of shotcrete layers at an excavation stage and during the completion of excavation support and primary lining. An additional example of the use of the method in the geometric documentation of the concrete lining formwork is examined and comparisons against dimensional tolerances are examined. Experimental comparisons and analyses of the laser scanning method against conventional surveying techniques are also considered.
Keywords: laser scanning; LIDAR; tunnel excavation; total station; formwork; geometry documentation; construction management
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Gikas, V. Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Geometry Documentation and Construction Management of Highway Tunnels during Excavation. Sensors 2012, 12, 11249-11270.
Gikas V. Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Geometry Documentation and Construction Management of Highway Tunnels during Excavation. Sensors. 2012; 12(8):11249-11270.
Gikas, Vassilis. 2012. "Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Geometry Documentation and Construction Management of Highway Tunnels during Excavation." Sensors 12, no. 8: 11249-11270.