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Hyperspectral Analysis of Soil Nitrogen, Carbon, Carbonate, and Organic Matter Using Regression Trees
School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, College of the Environment, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 July 2012; in revised form: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 1 August 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Abstract: The characterization of soil attributes using hyperspectral sensors has revealed patterns in soil spectra that are known to respond to mineral composition, organic matter, soil moisture and particle size distribution. Soil samples from different soil horizons of replicated soil series from sites located within Washington and Oregon were analyzed with the FieldSpec Spectroradiometer to measure their spectral signatures across the electromagnetic range of 400 to 1,000 nm. Similarity rankings of individual soil samples reveal differences between replicate series as well as samples within the same replicate series. Using classification and regression tree statistical methods, regression trees were fitted to each spectral response using concentrations of nitrogen, carbon, carbonate and organic matter as the response variables. Statistics resulting from fitted trees were: nitrogen R2 0.91 (p < 0.01) at 403, 470, 687, and 846 nm spectral band widths, carbonate R2 0.95 (p < 0.01) at 531 and 898 nm band widths, total carbon R2 0.93 (p < 0.01) at 400, 409, 441 and 907 nm band widths, and organic matter R2 0.98 (p < 0.01) at 300, 400, 441, 832 and 907 nm band widths. Use of the 400 to 1,000 nm electromagnetic range utilizing regression trees provided a powerful, rapid and inexpensive method for assessing nitrogen, carbon, carbonate and organic matter for upper soil horizons in a nondestructive method.
Keywords: soil horizons; Washington; Oregon; ASD
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MDPI and ACS Style
Gmur, S.; Vogt, D.; Zabowski, D.; Moskal, L.M. Hyperspectral Analysis of Soil Nitrogen, Carbon, Carbonate, and Organic Matter Using Regression Trees. Sensors 2012, 12, 10639-10658.
Gmur S, Vogt D, Zabowski D, Moskal LM. Hyperspectral Analysis of Soil Nitrogen, Carbon, Carbonate, and Organic Matter Using Regression Trees. Sensors. 2012; 12(8):10639-10658.
Gmur, Stephan; Vogt, Daniel; Zabowski, Darlene; Moskal, L. Monika. 2012. "Hyperspectral Analysis of Soil Nitrogen, Carbon, Carbonate, and Organic Matter Using Regression Trees." Sensors 12, no. 8: 10639-10658.