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Sensors, Volume 12, Issue 7 (July 2012), Pages 8438-9950

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Displaying articles 1-81
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Open AccessArticle A Logistic Regression Model for Predicting Axillary Lymph Node Metastases in Early Breast Carcinoma Patients
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9936-9950; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709936
Received: 25 May 2012 / Revised: 9 July 2012 / Accepted: 9 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nodal staging in breast cancer is a key predictor of prognosis. This paper presents the results of potential clinicopathological predictors of axillary lymph node involvement and develops an efficient prediction model to assist in predicting axillary lymph node metastases. Seventy patients with primary
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Nodal staging in breast cancer is a key predictor of prognosis. This paper presents the results of potential clinicopathological predictors of axillary lymph node involvement and develops an efficient prediction model to assist in predicting axillary lymph node metastases. Seventy patients with primary early breast cancer who underwent axillary dissection were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to evaluate the association between clinicopathological factors and lymph node metastatic status. A logistic regression predictive model was built from 50 randomly selected patients; the model was also applied to the remaining 20 patients to assess its validity. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between lymph node involvement and absence of nm-23 (p = 0.010) and Kiss-1 (p = 0.001) expression. Absence of Kiss-1 remained significantly associated with positive axillary node status in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.018). Seven clinicopathological factors were involved in the multivariate logistic regression model: menopausal status, tumor size, ER, PR, HER2, nm-23 and Kiss-1. The model was accurate and discriminating, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.702 when applied to the validation group. Moreover, there is a need discover more specific candidate proteins and molecular biology tools to select more variables which should improve predictive accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers and Nanosensors: New Approaches for Biology and Medicine)
Open AccessArticle User Localization During Human-Robot Interaction
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9913-9935; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709913
Received: 8 June 2012 / Revised: 6 July 2012 / Accepted: 11 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (8065 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a user localization system based on the fusion of visual information and sound source localization, implemented on a social robot called Maggie. One of the main requisites to obtain a natural interaction between human-human and human-robot is an adequate spatial
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This paper presents a user localization system based on the fusion of visual information and sound source localization, implemented on a social robot called Maggie. One of the main requisites to obtain a natural interaction between human-human and human-robot is an adequate spatial situation between the interlocutors, that is, to be orientated and situated at the right distance during the conversation in order to have a satisfactory communicative process. Our social robot uses a complete multimodal dialog system which manages the user-robot interaction during the communicative process. One of its main components is the presented user localization system. To determine the most suitable allocation of the robot in relation to the user, a proxemic study of the human-robot interaction is required, which is described in this paper. The study has been made with two groups of users: children, aged between 8 and 17, and adults. Finally, at the end of the paper, experimental results with the proposed multimodal dialog system are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessReview Foot Plantar Pressure Measurement System: A Review
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9884-9912; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709884
Received: 15 May 2012 / Revised: 27 June 2012 / Accepted: 3 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 176 | PDF Full-text (1051 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Foot plantar pressure is the pressure field that acts between the foot and the support surface during everyday locomotor activities. Information derived from such pressure measures is important in gait and posture research for diagnosing lower limb problems, footwear design, sport biomechanics, injury
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Foot plantar pressure is the pressure field that acts between the foot and the support surface during everyday locomotor activities. Information derived from such pressure measures is important in gait and posture research for diagnosing lower limb problems, footwear design, sport biomechanics, injury prevention and other applications. This paper reviews foot plantar sensors characteristics as reported in the literature in addition to foot plantar pressure measurement systems applied to a variety of research problems. Strengths and limitations of current systems are discussed and a wireless foot plantar pressure system is proposed suitable for measuring high pressure distributions under the foot with high accuracy and reliability. The novel system is based on highly linear pressure sensors with no hysteresis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Body Area Networks Using the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain Method
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9862-9883; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709862
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 10 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A rigorous full-wave solution, via the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) method, is performed in an attempt to obtain realistic communication channel models for on-body wireless transmission in Body-Area-Networks (BANs), which are local data networks using the human body as a propagation medium. The problem of
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A rigorous full-wave solution, via the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) method, is performed in an attempt to obtain realistic communication channel models for on-body wireless transmission in Body-Area-Networks (BANs), which are local data networks using the human body as a propagation medium. The problem of modeling the coupling between body mounted antennas is often not amenable to attack by hybrid techniques owing to the complex nature of the human body. For instance, the time-domain Green’s function approach becomes more involved when the antennas are not conformal. Furthermore, the human body is irregular in shape and has dispersion properties that are unique. One consequence of this is that we must resort to modeling the antenna network mounted on the body in its entirety, and the number of degrees of freedom (DoFs) can be on the order of billions. Even so, this type of problem can still be modeled by employing a parallel version of the FDTD algorithm running on a cluster. Lastly, we note that the results of rigorous simulation of BANs can serve as benchmarks for comparison with the abundance of measurement data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
Open AccessArticle Characterizing the Moisture Content of Tea with Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy Using Wavelet Transform and Multivariate Analysis
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9847-9861; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709847
Received: 2 June 2012 / Revised: 26 June 2012 / Accepted: 9 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Effects of the moisture content (MC) of tea on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were investigated by integrated wavelet transform and multivariate analysis. A total of 738 representative samples, including fresh tea leaves, manufactured tea and partially processed tea were collected for spectral measurement in
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Effects of the moisture content (MC) of tea on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were investigated by integrated wavelet transform and multivariate analysis. A total of 738 representative samples, including fresh tea leaves, manufactured tea and partially processed tea were collected for spectral measurement in the 325–1,075 nm range with a field portable spectroradiometer. Then wavelet transform (WT) and multivariate analysis were adopted for quantitative determination of the relationship between MC and spectral data. Three feature extraction methods including WT, principal component analysis (PCA) and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) were used to explore the internal structure of spectral data. Comparison of those three methods indicated that the variables generated by WT could efficiently discover structural information of spectral data. Calibration involving seeking the relationship between MC and spectral data was executed by using regression analysis, including partial least squares regression, multiple linear regression and least square support vector machine. Results showed that there was a significant correlation between MC and spectral data (r = 0.991, RMSEP = 0.034). Moreover, the effective wavelengths for MC measurement were detected at range of 888–1,007 nm by wavelet transform. The results indicated that the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of tea is highly correlated with MC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Harnessing the Interaction Continuum for Subtle Assisted Living
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9829-9846; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709829
Received: 19 March 2012 / Revised: 3 July 2012 / Accepted: 11 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (5124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
People interact with each other in many levels of attention, intention and meaning. This Interaction Continuum is used daily to deal with different contexts, adapting the interaction to communication needs and available resources. Nevertheless, computer-supported interaction has mainly focused on the most direct,
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People interact with each other in many levels of attention, intention and meaning. This Interaction Continuum is used daily to deal with different contexts, adapting the interaction to communication needs and available resources. Nevertheless, computer-supported interaction has mainly focused on the most direct, explicit and intrusive types of human to human Interaction such as phone calls, emails, or video conferences. This paper presents the results of exploring and exploiting the potentials of undemanding interaction mechanisms, paying special attention to subtle communication and background interaction. As we argue the benefits of this type of interaction for people with special needs, we present a theoretical framework to define it and propose a proof of concept based on Augmented Objects and a color codification mechanism. Finally, we evaluate and analyze the strengths and limitations of such approach with people with cognitive disabilities. Full article
Open AccessCommunication A Micro-Machined Gyroscope for Rotating Aircraft
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9823-9828; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709823
Received: 1 April 2012 / Revised: 23 May 2012 / Accepted: 1 June 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
PDF Full-text (633 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we present recent work on the design, fabrication by silicon micromachining, and packaging of a new gyroscope for stabilizing the autopilot of rotating aircraft. It operates based on oscillation of the silicon pendulum between two torsion girders for detecting the
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In this paper we present recent work on the design, fabrication by silicon micromachining, and packaging of a new gyroscope for stabilizing the autopilot of rotating aircraft. It operates based on oscillation of the silicon pendulum between two torsion girders for detecting the Coriolis force. The oscillation of the pendulum is initiated by the rolling and deflecting motion of the rotating carrier. Therefore, the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation are proportional to the rolling frequency and deflecting angular rate of the rotating carrier, and are measured by the sensing electrodes. A modulated pulse with constant amplitude and unequal width is obtained by a linearizing process of the gyroscope output signal and used to control the deflection of the rotating aircraft. Experimental results show that the gyroscope has a resolution of 0.008 °/s and a bias of 56.18 °/h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Small Sensor Systems and Components)
Open AccessArticle Ubiquitous Geo-Sensing for Context-Aware Analysis: Exploring Relationships between Environmental and Human Dynamics
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9800-9822; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709800
Received: 18 June 2012 / Revised: 12 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 18 July 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ubiquitous geo-sensing enables context-aware analyses of physical and social phenomena, i.e., analyzing one phenomenon in the context of another. Although such context-aware analysis can potentially enable a more holistic understanding of spatio-temporal processes, it is rarely documented in the scientific literature yet.
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Ubiquitous geo-sensing enables context-aware analyses of physical and social phenomena, i.e., analyzing one phenomenon in the context of another. Although such context-aware analysis can potentially enable a more holistic understanding of spatio-temporal processes, it is rarely documented in the scientific literature yet. In this paper we analyzed the collective human behavior in the context of the weather. We therefore explored the complex relationships between these two spatio-temporal phenomena to provide novel insights into the dynamics of urban systems. Aggregated mobile phone data, which served as a proxy for collective human behavior, was linked with the weather data from climate stations in the case study area, the city of Udine, Northern Italy. To identify and characterize potential patterns within the weather-human relationships, we developed a hybrid approach which integrates several spatio-temporal statistical analysis methods. Thereby we show that explanatory factor analysis, when applied to a number of meteorological variables, can be used to differentiate between normal and adverse weather conditions. Further, we measured the strength of the relationship between the ‘global’ adverse weather conditions and the spatially explicit effective variations in user-generated mobile network traffic for three distinct periods using the Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC). The analyses result in three spatially referenced maps of MICs which reveal interesting insights into collective human dynamics in the context of weather, but also initiate several new scientific challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Sensitivity of a Label-Free Guided-Mode Resonant Optical Biosensor with Different Modes
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9791-9799; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709791
Received: 4 June 2012 / Revised: 26 June 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 18 July 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sensitivity is a key factor in the performance of a sensor. To achieve maximum guided-mode resonant optical biosensor sensitivity, a comparison of biosensor sensitivity for Transverse Electric (TE) and Transverse Magnetic (TM) modes based on the distribution of electric fields is presented in
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Sensitivity is a key factor in the performance of a sensor. To achieve maximum guided-mode resonant optical biosensor sensitivity, a comparison of biosensor sensitivity for Transverse Electric (TE) and Transverse Magnetic (TM) modes based on the distribution of electric fields is presented in this article. A label-free guided-mode resonant optical biosensor is designed using the quarter-wave anti-reflection method to reflect only a narrow band of wavelengths modulated by the adsorption of a biochemical material on the sensor surface at the reflected frequency. With the distribution of electric fields simulated according to the Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) theory, it is found that the full width at half maximum of the TM mode is (~4 nm) narrower than that of the TE mode (~20 nm), and the surface sensitivity of the TE mode incident light is three times that of the TM mode. It is proposed in this article that the light mode plays an important role in the sensitivity of guided-mode resonant biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Correcting the Temperature Influence on Soil Capacitance Sensors Using Diurnal Temperature and Water Content Cycles
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9773-9790; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709773
Received: 24 May 2012 / Revised: 6 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 18 July 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1017 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of temperature on the dielectric permittivity of soil is the result of counteracting effect that depends on the soil’s composition and mineralogy. In this paper, laboratory experiments showed that for a given water content, the soil dielectric permittivity was linearly related
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The influence of temperature on the dielectric permittivity of soil is the result of counteracting effect that depends on the soil’s composition and mineralogy. In this paper, laboratory experiments showed that for a given water content, the soil dielectric permittivity was linearly related to the temperature, with a slope (α) that varied between samples taken in the same soil. These variations are difficult to predict and therefore, a simple and straightforward algorithm was designed to estimate α based on the diurnal patterns of both the measured dielectric permittivity and the soil temperature. The underlying idea is to assume that soil water content variations can be known with a reasonable accuracy over an appropriate time window within a day. This allows determining the contribution of the soil water content to the dielectric permittivity variations and then, the difference with the observed measurements is attributed to the soil temperature. Implementation of the correction methods in a large number of experiments significantly improved the physical meaning of the temporal evolution of the soil water content as the daily cycles for probes located near the surface or the long-term variations for more deeply installed probes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Interactive Effects on Water Flow and Solute Transport in Sandy Loam Soil Using Time Domain Reflectometry
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9749-9772; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709749
Received: 5 June 2012 / Revised: 4 July 2012 / Accepted: 16 July 2012 / Published: 18 July 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (620 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface-applied chemicals move through the unsaturated zone with complex flow and transport processes due to soil heterogeneity and reach the saturated zone, resulting in groundwater contamination. Such complex processes need to be studied by advanced measurement and modeling techniques to protect soil and
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Surface-applied chemicals move through the unsaturated zone with complex flow and transport processes due to soil heterogeneity and reach the saturated zone, resulting in groundwater contamination. Such complex processes need to be studied by advanced measurement and modeling techniques to protect soil and water resources from contamination. In this study, the interactive effects of factors like soil structure, initial soil water content (SWC), and application rate on preferential flow and transport were studied in a sandy loam field soil using measurement (by time domain reflectometry (TDR)) and modeling (by MACRO and VS2DTI) techniques. In addition, statistical analyses were performed to compare the means of the measured and modeled SWC and EC, and solute transport parameters (pore water velocity and dispersion coefficient) in 12 treatments. Research results showed that even though the effects of soil structural conditions on water and solute transport were not so clear, the applied solution moved lower depths in the profiles of wet versus dry initial SWC and high application rate versus low application rates. The effects of soil structure and initial SWC on water and solute movement could be differentiated under the interactive conditions, but the effects of the application rates were difficult to differentiate under different soil structural and initial SWC conditions. Modeling results showed that MACRO had somewhat better performance than VS2DTI in the estimation of SWC and EC with space and time, but overall both models had relatively low performances. The means of SWC, EC, and solute transport parameters of the 12 treatments were divided into some groups based on the statistical analyses, indicating different flow and transport characteristics or a certain degree nonuniform or preferential flow and transport in the soil. Conducting field experiments with more interactive factors and applying the models with different approaches may allow better understanding of flow and transport processes in addition to the simulations of them in the unsaturated zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle SEMAT — The Next Generation of Inexpensive Marine Environmental Monitoring and Measurement Systems
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9711-9748; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709711
Received: 23 April 2012 / Revised: 10 May 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 18 July 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (2807 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is an increasing need for environmental measurement systems to further science and thereby lead to improved policies for sustainable management. Marine environments are particularly hostile and extremely difficult for deploying sensitive measurement systems. As a consequence the need for data is greatest
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There is an increasing need for environmental measurement systems to further science and thereby lead to improved policies for sustainable management. Marine environments are particularly hostile and extremely difficult for deploying sensitive measurement systems. As a consequence the need for data is greatest in marine environments, particularly in the developing economies/regions. Expense is typically the most significant limiting factor in the number of measurement systems that can be deployed, although technical complexity and the consequent high level of technical skill required for deployment and servicing runs a close second. This paper describes the Smart Environmental Monitoring and Analysis Technologies (SEMAT) project and the present development of the SEMAT technology. SEMAT is a “smart” wireless sensor network that uses a commodity-based approach for selecting technologies most appropriate to the scientifically driven marine research and monitoring domain/field. This approach allows for significantly cheaper environmental observation systems that cover a larger geographical area and can therefore collect more representative data. We describe SEMAT’s goals, which include: (1) The ability to adapt and evolve; (2) Underwater wireless communications; (3) Short-range wireless power transmission; (4) Plug and play components; (5) Minimal deployment expertise; (6) Near real-time analysis tools; and (7) Intelligent sensors. This paper illustrates how the capacity of the system has been improved over three iterations towards realising these goals. The result is an inexpensive and flexible system that is ideal for short-term deployments in shallow coastal and other aquatic environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Design and Analysis of a Compact Precision Positioning Platform Integrating Strain Gauges and the Piezoactuator
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9697-9710; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709697
Received: 14 May 2012 / Revised: 7 June 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 17 July 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Miniaturization precision positioning platforms are needed for in situ nanomechanical test applications. This paper proposes a compact precision positioning platform integrating strain gauges and the piezoactuator. Effects of geometric parameters of two parallel plates on Von Mises stress distribution as well as static
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Miniaturization precision positioning platforms are needed for in situ nanomechanical test applications. This paper proposes a compact precision positioning platform integrating strain gauges and the piezoactuator. Effects of geometric parameters of two parallel plates on Von Mises stress distribution as well as static and dynamic characteristics of the platform were studied by the finite element method. Results of the calibration experiment indicate that the strain gauge sensor has good linearity and its sensitivity is about 0.0468 mV/μm. A closed-loop control system was established to solve the problem of nonlinearity of the platform. Experimental results demonstrate that for the displacement control process, both the displacement increasing portion and the decreasing portion have good linearity, verifying that the control system is available. The developed platform has a compact structure but can realize displacement measurement with the embedded strain gauges, which is useful for the closed-loop control and structure miniaturization of piezo devices. It has potential applications in nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests, especially in the field of in situ nanomechanical testing which requires compact structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Small Sensor Systems and Components)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Instrumentation Circuit for Electrochemical Measurements
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9687-9696; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709687
Received: 27 April 2012 / Revised: 9 June 2012 / Accepted: 9 July 2012 / Published: 17 July 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a novel signal processing circuit which can be used for the measurement of H+ ion and urea concentration is presented. A potentiometric method is used to detect the concentrations of H+ ions and urea by using H+
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In this paper, a novel signal processing circuit which can be used for the measurement of H+ ion and urea concentration is presented. A potentiometric method is used to detect the concentrations of H+ ions and urea by using H+ ion-selective electrodes and urea electrodes, respectively. The experimental data shows that this measuring structure has a linear pH response for the concentration range within pH 2 and 12, and the dynamic range for urea concentration measurement is in the range of 0.25 to 64 mg/dL. The designed instrumentation circuit possesses a calibration function and it can be applied to different sensing electrodes for electrochemical analysis. It possesses the advantageous properties of being multi-purpose, easy calibration and low cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle A Simplified Baseband Prefilter Model with Adaptive Kalman Filter for Ultra-Tight COMPASS/INS Integration
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9666-9686; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120709666
Received: 18 May 2012 / Revised: 19 June 2012 / Accepted: 27 June 2012 / Published: 17 July 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
COMPASS is an indigenously developed Chinese global navigation satellite system and will share many features in common with GPS (Global Positioning System). Since the ultra-tight GPS/INS (Inertial Navigation System) integration shows its advantage over independent GPS receivers in many scenarios, the federated ultra-tight
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COMPASS is an indigenously developed Chinese global navigation satellite system and will share many features in common with GPS (Global Positioning System). Since the ultra-tight GPS/INS (Inertial Navigation System) integration shows its advantage over independent GPS receivers in many scenarios, the federated ultra-tight COMPASS/INS integration has been investigated in this paper, particularly, by proposing a simplified prefilter model. Compared with a traditional prefilter model, the state space of this simplified system contains only carrier phase, carrier frequency and carrier frequency rate tracking errors. A two-quadrant arctangent discriminator output is used as a measurement. Since the code tracking error related parameters were excluded from the state space of traditional prefilter models, the code/carrier divergence would destroy the carrier tracking process, and therefore an adaptive Kalman filter algorithm tuning process noise covariance matrix based on state correction sequence was incorporated to compensate for the divergence. The federated ultra-tight COMPASS/INS integration was implemented with a hardware COMPASS intermediate frequency (IF), and INS’s accelerometers and gyroscopes signal sampling system. Field and simulation test results showed almost similar tracking and navigation performances for both the traditional prefilter model and the proposed system; however, the latter largely decreased the computational load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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