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Sensors 2012, 12(7), 8806-8814; doi:10.3390/s120708806

Immobilization of Ionophore and Surface Characterization Studies of the Titanium(III) Ion in a PVC-Membrane Sensor

1
School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor D.E., Malaysia
2
ACECR Mashhad Branch, Food Science and Technology Research Institute, Mashhad 91775-1376, Iran
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor D.E., Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 May 2012 / Revised: 28 May 2012 / Accepted: 28 May 2012 / Published: 27 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

Novel ionophores comprising various hydroxide and amine structures were immobilized onto poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrices, and these were examined to determine Ti(III) selectivity. To predict the selectivity of Ti(III), a PVC membrane was used to investigate the binding of Ti(III) to c-methylcalix[4]resorcinarene (CMCR). The study showed that the chelating ligand, CMCR, was coordinated selectively to Ti(III) at eight coordination sites involving the oxygen atoms at the interface of the membrane/solution. The membrane was prepared, based on CMCR as an ionophore, sodium tetrakis(4-fluorophenyl) borate (NaTFPB) as a lipophilic ionic additive, and dioctylphthalate (DOP) as a plasticizer. The immobilization of the ionophore and surface characterization studies revealed that the performance of CMCR-immobilized PVC was equivalent to that of mobile ionophores in supported liquid membranes (SLMs). The strengths of the ion-ionophore (CMCR-Ti(OH)(OH2)52+) interactions and the role of ionophores on membranes were studied via UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and and X-ray diffraction (XRD).
Keywords: ionophore-immobilized membrane; titanium(III) cation; c-methyl-calix[4]resorcinarene; UV-Vis; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction ionophore-immobilized membrane; titanium(III) cation; c-methyl-calix[4]resorcinarene; UV-Vis; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rezayi, M.; Heng, L.Y.; Kassim, A.; Ahmadzadeh, S.; Abdollahi, Y.; Jahangirian, H. Immobilization of Ionophore and Surface Characterization Studies of the Titanium(III) Ion in a PVC-Membrane Sensor. Sensors 2012, 12, 8806-8814.

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