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Satellite Remote Sensing of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and a Potential Synthesized Framework
State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
Department of Geography and Planning, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5C8, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 May 2012; in revised form: 31 May 2012 / Accepted: 31 May 2012 / Published: 7 June 2012
Abstract: Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are severe ecological disasters threatening aquatic systems throughout the World, which necessitate scientific efforts in detecting and monitoring them. Compared with traditional in situ point observations, satellite remote sensing is considered as a promising technique for studying HABs due to its advantages of large-scale, real-time, and long-term monitoring. The present review summarizes the suitability of current satellite data sources and different algorithms for detecting HABs. It also discusses the spatial scale issue of HABs. Based on the major problems identified from previous literature, including the unsystematic understanding of HABs, the insufficient incorporation of satellite remote sensing, and a lack of multiple oceanographic explanations of the mechanisms causing HABs, this review also attempts to provide a comprehensive understanding of the complicated mechanism of HABs impacted by multiple oceanographic factors. A potential synthesized framework can be established by combining multiple accessible satellite remote sensing approaches including visual interpretation, spectra analysis, parameters retrieval and spatial-temporal pattern analysis. This framework aims to lead to a systematic and comprehensive monitoring of HABs based on satellite remote sensing from multiple oceanographic perspectives.
Keywords: harmful algal blooms (HABs); satellite remote sensing; multiple-spectral sensors; hyperspectral sensor; spectra analysis; oceanographic parameters; a synthesized framework; multiple oceanographic explanations
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Shen, L.; Xu, H.; Guo, X. Satellite Remote Sensing of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and a Potential Synthesized Framework. Sensors 2012, 12, 7778-7803.
Shen L, Xu H, Guo X. Satellite Remote Sensing of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and a Potential Synthesized Framework. Sensors. 2012; 12(6):7778-7803.
Shen, Li; Xu, Huiping; Guo, Xulin. 2012. "Satellite Remote Sensing of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and a Potential Synthesized Framework." Sensors 12, no. 6: 7778-7803.