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A Urinary Bcl-2 Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor for Early Ovarian Cancer Detection
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Marmara University, Goztepe 34722, Istanbul, Turkey
Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, University of South Florida Health, 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd., MDC 11, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 March 2012; in revised form: 22 May 2012 / Accepted: 28 May 2012 / Published: 31 May 2012
Abstract: In this study, the design, fabrication, surface functionalization and experimental characterization of an ultrasonic MEMS biosensor for urinary anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) detection with sub ng/mL sensitivity is presented. It was previously shown that urinary Bcl-2 levels are reliably elevated during early and late stages of ovarian cancer. Our biosensor uses shear horizontal (SH) surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on surface functionalized ST-cut Quartz to quantify the mass loading change by protein adhesion to the delay path. SH-SAWs were generated and received by a pair of micro-fabricated interdigital transducers (IDTs) separated by a judiciously designed delay path. The delay path was surface-functionalized with monoclonal antibodies, ODMS, Protein A/G and Pluronic F127 for optimal Bcl-2 capture with minimal non-specific adsorption. Bcl-2 concentrations were quantified by the resulting resonance frequency shift detected by a custom designed resonator circuit. The target sensitivity for diagnosis and identifying the stage of ovarian cancer was successfully achieved with demonstrated Bcl-2 detection capability of 500 pg/mL. It was also shown that resonance frequency shift increases linearly with increasing Bcl-2 concentration.
Keywords: ovarian cancer; MEMS; piezoelectric; sensor; early detection; Bcl-2; SH; SAW; SAM; ultrasound
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Onen, O.; Sisman, A.; Gallant, N.D.; Kruk, P.; Guldiken, R. A Urinary Bcl-2 Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor for Early Ovarian Cancer Detection. Sensors 2012, 12, 7423-7437.
Onen O, Sisman A, Gallant ND, Kruk P, Guldiken R. A Urinary Bcl-2 Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor for Early Ovarian Cancer Detection. Sensors. 2012; 12(6):7423-7437.
Onen, Onursal; Sisman, Alper; Gallant, Nathan D.; Kruk, Patricia; Guldiken, Rasim. 2012. "A Urinary Bcl-2 Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor for Early Ovarian Cancer Detection." Sensors 12, no. 6: 7423-7437.