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Sensors 2012, 12(6), 7423-7437; doi:10.3390/s120607423
Article

A Urinary Bcl-2 Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor for Early Ovarian Cancer Detection

1
,
1,2
,
1
,
3
 and
1,*
1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620, USA 2 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Marmara University, Goztepe 34722, Istanbul, Turkey 3 Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, University of South Florida Health, 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd., MDC 11, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 March 2012 / Revised: 22 May 2012 / Accepted: 28 May 2012 / Published: 31 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BioMEMS and Advanced Analytical Sensors for Biological Applications)
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Abstract

In this study, the design, fabrication, surface functionalization and experimental characterization of an ultrasonic MEMS biosensor for urinary anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) detection with sub ng/mL sensitivity is presented. It was previously shown that urinary Bcl-2 levels are reliably elevated during early and late stages of ovarian cancer. Our biosensor uses shear horizontal (SH) surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on surface functionalized ST-cut Quartz to quantify the mass loading change by protein adhesion to the delay path. SH-SAWs were generated and received by a pair of micro-fabricated interdigital transducers (IDTs) separated by a judiciously designed delay path. The delay path was surface-functionalized with monoclonal antibodies, ODMS, Protein A/G and Pluronic F127 for optimal Bcl-2 capture with minimal non-specific adsorption. Bcl-2 concentrations were quantified by the resulting resonance frequency shift detected by a custom designed resonator circuit. The target sensitivity for diagnosis and identifying the stage of ovarian cancer was successfully achieved with demonstrated Bcl-2 detection capability of 500 pg/mL. It was also shown that resonance frequency shift increases linearly with increasing Bcl-2 concentration.
Keywords: ovarian cancer; MEMS; piezoelectric; sensor; early detection; Bcl-2; SH; SAW; SAM; ultrasound ovarian cancer; MEMS; piezoelectric; sensor; early detection; Bcl-2; SH; SAW; SAM; ultrasound
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Onen, O.; Sisman, A.; Gallant, N.D.; Kruk, P.; Guldiken, R. A Urinary Bcl-2 Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor for Early Ovarian Cancer Detection. Sensors 2012, 12, 7423-7437.

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