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Electrochemical Detection of Anti-Breast-Cancer Agents in Human Serum by Cytochrome P450-Coated Carbon Nanotubes
EPFL—École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, MXG 321, Station 12, Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 April 2012; in revised form: 11 May 2012 / Accepted: 15 May 2012 / Published: 18 May 2012
Abstract: We report on the electrochemical detection of anti-cancer drugs in human serum with sensitivity values in the range of 8–925 nA/µM. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were functionalized with three different cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4). A model used to effectively describe the cytochrome P450 deposition onto carbon nanotubes was confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. Voltammetric measurements were performed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as well as in human serum, giving well-defined current responses upon addition of increasing concentrations of anti-cancer drugs. The results assert the capability to measure concentration of drugs in the pharmacological ranges in human serum. Another important result is the possibility to detect pairs of drugs present in the same sample, which is highly required in case of therapies with high side-effects risk and in anti-cancer pharmacological treatments based on mixtures of different drugs. Our technology holds potentials for inexpensive multi-panel drug-monitoring in personalized therapy.
Keywords: cytochrome P450; carbon-nanotubes; electrochemical drugs detection; breast-cancer; human serum; personalized therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style
Baj-Rossi, C.; Micheli, G.D.; Carrara, S. Electrochemical Detection of Anti-Breast-Cancer Agents in Human Serum by Cytochrome P450-Coated Carbon Nanotubes. Sensors 2012, 12, 6520-6537.
Baj-Rossi C, Micheli GD, Carrara S. Electrochemical Detection of Anti-Breast-Cancer Agents in Human Serum by Cytochrome P450-Coated Carbon Nanotubes. Sensors. 2012; 12(5):6520-6537.
Baj-Rossi, Camilla; Micheli, Giovanni De; Carrara, Sandro. 2012. "Electrochemical Detection of Anti-Breast-Cancer Agents in Human Serum by Cytochrome P450-Coated Carbon Nanotubes." Sensors 12, no. 5: 6520-6537.