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Ubiquitous Sensor Networking for Development (USN4D): An Application to Pollution Monitoring
ISAT Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, 7701 RSA, South Africa
Telecommunications / ICT for Develoment Laboratory, The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costieri 11, Trieste 34151, Italy
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, 7701 RSA, South Africa
Libelium, 11 C/Maria de Luna, Zaragoza 50018, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 November 2011; in revised form: 29 November 2011 / Accepted: 23 December 2011 / Published: 4 January 2012
Abstract: This paper presents a new Ubiquitous Sensor Network (USN) Architecture to be used in developing countries and reveals its usefulness by highlighting some of its key features. In complement to a previous ITU proposal, our architecture referred to as “Ubiquitous Sensor Network for Development (USN4D)” integrates in its layers features such as opportunistic data dissemination, long distance deployment and localisation of information to meet the requirements of the developing world. Besides describing some of the most important requirements for the sensor equipment to be used in a USN4D setting, we present the main features and experiments conducted using the “WaspNet” as one of the wireless sensor deployment platforms that meets these requirements. Furthermore, building upon “WaspNet” platform, we present an application to Air pollution Monitoring in the city of Cape Town, in South Africa as one of the first steps towards building community wireless sensor networks (CSN) in the developing world using off-the-shelf sensor equipment.
Keywords: ubiquitous sensor networking; environment monitoring; wireless sensor networks; long distance wireless sensor networks
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Bagula, A.; Zennaro, M.; Inggs, G.; Scott, S.; Gascon, D. Ubiquitous Sensor Networking for Development (USN4D): An Application to Pollution Monitoring. Sensors 2012, 12, 391-414.
Bagula A, Zennaro M, Inggs G, Scott S, Gascon D. Ubiquitous Sensor Networking for Development (USN4D): An Application to Pollution Monitoring. Sensors. 2012; 12(1):391-414.
Bagula, Antoine; Zennaro, Marco; Inggs, Gordon; Scott, Simon; Gascon, David. 2012. "Ubiquitous Sensor Networking for Development (USN4D): An Application to Pollution Monitoring." Sensors 12, no. 1: 391-414.