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Sensors 2012, 12(1), 391-414; doi:10.3390/s120100391
Article

Ubiquitous Sensor Networking for Development (USN4D): An Application to Pollution Monitoring

1,* , 2
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Received: 11 November 2011; in revised form: 29 November 2011 / Accepted: 23 December 2011 / Published: 4 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing of Organic Pollution in Soil, Air, Water and Food)
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Abstract: This paper presents a new Ubiquitous Sensor Network (USN) Architecture to be used in developing countries and reveals its usefulness by highlighting some of its key features. In complement to a previous ITU proposal, our architecture referred to as “Ubiquitous Sensor Network for Development (USN4D)” integrates in its layers features such as opportunistic data dissemination, long distance deployment and localisation of information to meet the requirements of the developing world. Besides describing some of the most important requirements for the sensor equipment to be used in a USN4D setting, we present the main features and experiments conducted using the “WaspNet” as one of the wireless sensor deployment platforms that meets these requirements. Furthermore, building upon “WaspNet” platform, we present an application to Air pollution Monitoring in the city of Cape Town, in South Africa as one of the first steps towards building community wireless sensor networks (CSN) in the developing world using off-the-shelf sensor equipment.
Keywords: ubiquitous sensor networking; environment monitoring; wireless sensor networks; long distance wireless sensor networks ubiquitous sensor networking; environment monitoring; wireless sensor networks; long distance wireless sensor networks
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bagula, A.; Zennaro, M.; Inggs, G.; Scott, S.; Gascon, D. Ubiquitous Sensor Networking for Development (USN4D): An Application to Pollution Monitoring. Sensors 2012, 12, 391-414.

AMA Style

Bagula A, Zennaro M, Inggs G, Scott S, Gascon D. Ubiquitous Sensor Networking for Development (USN4D): An Application to Pollution Monitoring. Sensors. 2012; 12(1):391-414.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bagula, Antoine; Zennaro, Marco; Inggs, Gordon; Scott, Simon; Gascon, David. 2012. "Ubiquitous Sensor Networking for Development (USN4D): An Application to Pollution Monitoring." Sensors 12, no. 1: 391-414.


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