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Active Integrated Filters for RF-Photonic Channelizers
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, P.O. Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083, USA
Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, P.O. Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083, USA
Department of Electrical Engineering, Southern Methodist University, P.O. Box 750338, Dallas, TX 75275, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 December 2010; in revised form: 17 January 2011 / Accepted: 17 January 2011 / Published: 25 January 2011
Abstract: A theoretical study of RF-photonic channelizers using four architectures formed by active integrated filters with tunable gains is presented. The integrated filters are enabled by two- and four-port nano-photonic couplers (NPCs). Lossless and three individual manufacturing cases with high transmission, high reflection, and symmetric couplers are assumed in the work. NPCs behavior is dependent upon the phenomenon of frustrated total internal reflection. Experimentally, photonic channelizers are fabricated in one single semiconductor chip on multi-quantum well epitaxial InP wafers using conventional microelectronics processing techniques. A state space modeling approach is used to derive the transfer functions and analyze the stability of these filters. The ability of adapting using the gains is demonstrated. Our simulation results indicate that the characteristic bandpass and notch filter responses of each structure are the basis of channelizer architectures, and optical gain may be used to adjust filter parameters to obtain a desired frequency magnitude response, especially in the range of 1–5 GHz for the chip with a coupler separation of ~9 mm. Preliminarily, the measurement of spectral response shows enhancement of quality factor by using higher optical gains. The present compact active filters on an InP-based integrated photonic circuit hold the potential for a variety of channelizer applications. Compared to a pure RF channelizer, photonic channelizers may perform both channelization and down-conversion in an optical domain.
Keywords: photonic channelizer; active filters; four-port coupler; state space representation
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El Nagdi, A.; Liu, K.; LaFave, T.P., Jr.; Hunt, L.R.; Ramakrishna, V.; Dabkowski, M.; MacFarlane, D.L.; Christensen, M.P. Active Integrated Filters for RF-Photonic Channelizers. Sensors 2011, 11, 1297-1320.
El Nagdi A, Liu K, LaFave TP, Jr, Hunt LR, Ramakrishna V, Dabkowski M, MacFarlane DL, Christensen MP. Active Integrated Filters for RF-Photonic Channelizers. Sensors. 2011; 11(2):1297-1320.
El Nagdi, Amr; Liu, Ke; LaFave, Tim P., Jr.; Hunt, Louis R.; Ramakrishna, Viswanath; Dabkowski, Mieczyslaw; MacFarlane, Duncan L.; Christensen, Marc P. 2011. "Active Integrated Filters for RF-Photonic Channelizers." Sensors 11, no. 2: 1297-1320.