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Driving Circuitry for Focused Ultrasound Noninvasive Surgery and Drug Delivery Applications
Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON M4N 3M5, Canada
Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M4N 3M5, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 November 2010; in revised form: 10 December 2010 / Accepted: 4 January 2011 / Published: 7 January 2011
Abstract: Recent works on focused ultrasound (FUS) have shown great promise for cancer therapy. Researchers are continuously trying to improve system performance, which is resulting in an increased complexity that is more apparent when using multi-element phased array systems. This has led to significant efforts to reduce system size and cost by relying on system integration. Although ideas from other fields such as microwave antenna phased arrays can be adopted in FUS, the application requirements differ significantly since the frequency range used in FUS is much lower. In this paper, we review recent efforts to design efficient power monitoring, phase shifting and output driving techniques used specifically for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU).
Keywords: beam-steering; focused ultrasound; high-intensity focused ultrasound; hyperthermia; integrated circuits; noninvasive surgery; phase shifter; phased arrays; phased-locked loop; power amplifier; pulser; tissue ablation
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MDPI and ACS Style
El-Desouki, M.M.; Hynynen, K. Driving Circuitry for Focused Ultrasound Noninvasive Surgery and Drug Delivery Applications. Sensors 2011, 11, 539-556.
El-Desouki MM, Hynynen K. Driving Circuitry for Focused Ultrasound Noninvasive Surgery and Drug Delivery Applications. Sensors. 2011; 11(1):539-556.
El-Desouki, Munir M.; Hynynen, Kullervo. 2011. "Driving Circuitry for Focused Ultrasound Noninvasive Surgery and Drug Delivery Applications." Sensors 11, no. 1: 539-556.