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Sensors and Clinical Mastitis—The Quest for the Perfect Alert
Chair group-Business Economics, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen, Netherlands
Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 7, 3584 CL Utrecht, Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 July 2010; in revised form: 9 August 2010 / Accepted: 20 August 2010 / Published: 27 August 2010
Abstract: When cows on dairy farms are milked with an automatic milking system or in high capacity milking parlors, clinical mastitis (CM) cannot be adequately detected without sensors. The objective of this paper is to describe the performance demands of sensor systems to detect CM and evaluats the current performance of these sensor systems. Several detection models based on different sensors were studied in the past. When evaluating these models, three factors are important: performance (in terms of sensitivity and specificity), the time window and the similarity of the study data with real farm data. A CM detection system should offer at least a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 99%. The time window should not be longer than 48 hours and study circumstances should be as similar to practical farm circumstances as possible. The study design should comprise more than one farm for data collection. Since 1992, 16 peer-reviewed papers have been published with a description and evaluation of CM detection models. There is a large variation in the use of sensors and algorithms. All this makes these results not very comparable. There is a also large difference in performance between the detection models and also a large variation in time windows used and little similarity between study data. Therefore, it is difficult to compare the overall performance of the different CM detection models. The sensitivity and specificity found in the different studies could, for a large part, be explained in differences in the used time window. None of the described studies satisfied the demands for CM detection models.
Keywords: clinical mastitis; sensors; electrical conductivity; algorithms
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Hogeveen, H.; Kamphuis, C.; Steeneveld, W.; Mollenhorst, H. Sensors and Clinical Mastitis—The Quest for the Perfect Alert. Sensors 2010, 10, 7991-8009.
Hogeveen H, Kamphuis C, Steeneveld W, Mollenhorst H. Sensors and Clinical Mastitis—The Quest for the Perfect Alert. Sensors. 2010; 10(9):7991-8009.
Hogeveen, Henk; Kamphuis, Claudia; Steeneveld, Wilma; Mollenhorst, Herman. 2010. "Sensors and Clinical Mastitis—The Quest for the Perfect Alert." Sensors 10, no. 9: 7991-8009.