- freely available
Sensors 2010, 10(3), 2416-2437; doi:10.3390/s100302416
2. Related Work
- In order to guarantee real-time and fault-tolerant characteristics, jumping transmission mode is adopted. When node failure, network congestion or empty region is detected, or the remaining transmission time of the data packet is near to deadline, jumping transmission mode will be used to reduce the transmission delay, thus ensuring the data packets are sent to the destination node in specified time limit.
- Feedback mechanism is exploited to enhance the successful transmission ratio. Each node feeds back the information about node failure, network congestion and empty area to its upstream node and the message is forwarded to the data sources. Then the jumping probability can be dynamically adjusted by using the feedback information, which can prevent the subsequent transmission from the effect caused by failure node, network congestion or empty region.
- When using the hop-by-hop transmission mode, the node in FCS with the minimum times of transmission is selected as the next hop node, through which the average energy cost of each node can be balanced. Therefore, the whole network life time can be prolonged.
- Definition 1: Node Failure State FAULTY. FAULTY indicates that the node is in failure state. If the states of the FCS nodes of the current node are all FAULTY, then the state of current node is set to JFAULTY, indicating the jumping transmission mode should be used to transmit data packet due to node failure.
- Definition 2: Node Congestion State CONG. CONG indicates that the node is in congestion state. If the states of the FCS nodes of the current node are all CONG, then the state of current node is set to JCONG, indicating the jumping transmission mode should be used to transmit data packet due to the congestion.
- Definition 3: Empty Area State VOID. VOID indicates that there is no node in the area. If the states of the FCS nodes of the current node are all VOID, then the state of the current node is set to VOID, indicating the jumping transmission mode should be used to transmit data packet due to the empty area.
- Definition 4: Jumping Probability pi. The pi indicates the probability of jumping from current node to the node i, the higher value of pi indicates the higher jumping probability.
- Definition 5: Confidence variable c. The c indicates the confidence level of reliability of the node, the higher value of c indicates the higher reliability of the node.
4. DMRF Protocol
4.1. Faulty Node Detection Method
|Data: FCS, confidence variable c.|
|Result: Node State.|
|1||Initialize the FCS and c.|
|2||IF the state of FCS is FAULTY or JFAULTY THEN|
|3||Set the state of the Node i as JFAULTY|
|5||For each Node j in FCS of Node i|
|6||Node i sends a message to Node j|
|7||IF Node i receives no reply from Node j THEN|
|8||Decrease the confidence variable c of Node j|
|9||IF the confidence variable c of Node j less than the confidence threshold f THEN|
|10||Set the state of the Node j as FAULTY|
|11||ELSE update the delay and transmission rate of Node j|
4.2. Network Congestion Detection Method
|Data: FCS, occupy factor of the Node and congestion factor|
|Result: Node State.|
|1||Initialize the FCS.|
|2||Predict the congestion using the method in .|
|3||IF Congestion happens Node i THEN|
|4||Set the state of Node i as CONG.|
|5||IF the state of FCS is CONG or JCONG THEN|
|6||Set the state of Node i as JCONG, inform to its upstream node.|
|7||IF Node i receives feedback message from Node j THEN|
|8||Set the state of Node j as CONG.|
|9||IF the state of Node i converts to normal THEN|
|10||Set the state of Node i as NORMAL, inform to its upstream node.|
|11||IF Node i receives the updating message THEN|
|12||Node i updates the record in the routing table.|
4.3. VOID Region Detection
|Result: Node state|
|2||IF Node i has not FCS THEN|
|3||Node i send feedback message to its upstream Node.|
|4||IF the states of all Nodes in FCS are VOID state THEN|
|5||Set the state of Node i VOID.|
|6||IF Node i receives feedback message from Node j THEN|
|7||Set the state of Node j VOID.|
4.4. The Jumping Transmission and Routing Selection
4.4.1. Jumping transmission
(1) Jumping probability adjustment when jumping transmission failure
(2) Jumping probability adjustment of the upstream node
4.4.2. Path Selection
|Result: Choose the next hop node and the transmitting mode.|
|1||IF the state of node is JFAULTY or VOID or JCONG THEN|
|2||Utilize the jumping mode.|
|3||IF λ ≥ θlow THEN|
|4|| Select the node with the maximum delay and minimum transmission times.|
Set the packet state as LOW.
|5||IF θlow > λ ≥ θhigh THEN|
|6|| Select the node with the maximum delay and minimum transmission times.|
Set the packet state as MEDIUM.
|7||IF θhigh > λ > θjump THEN|
|8|| Select the node with the maximum delay and minimum transmission times.|
Set the packet state as HIGH.
|9||IF λ ≤ θjump THEN|
|10||Utilize the jumping mode.|
4.4.3. Calculation of θlow and θhigh
5. Feasibility Proof and Performance Analysis of DMRF
5.1. Feasibility Analysis of DMRF Protocol
5.2. Message Complexity Analysis
5.3. Energy Consumption Complexity Analysis
5.4. Time Complexity of Faulty Nodes, Congested Nodes and VOID Region Detection
6. Performance Evaluation
6.1. Times of Successful Transmission with Different Ratios of Faulty Nodes
6.2. Successful Transmission Ratio under Congestion Condition
6.3. The Effect of Network Topology on DMRF
6.4. Successful Transmission Ratio in Case of VOID Region
6.5. Average Transmission Delay in Case of Different VOID Region Radius
6.6. The Number of Control Packets in Case of Different VOID Region Radius
7. Conclusions and Future Work
- The jumping transmission mode is explored to guarantee real-time and fault-tolerant characteristics.
- Feedback mechanism is used to enhance the successful transmission ratio.
- The average energy cost of each node in the network is balanced and the life time of the whole network is prolonged by the selection method of next hop in which the node in FCS with the minimum times of transmission is selected as the next hop.
- The feasibility proof and performance analysis are presented to testify the superiority of DMRF.
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|FAULTY & JFAULTY||Faulty & JFaulty state|
|CONG & JCONG & NORMAL||Congestion & JCongestion & Normal state|
|Sucj||Successful transmission ratio to node j|
|pi||Jumping probabilities to node i|
|λ||Remaining transmission time factor|
|θlow, θhigh||Lower or Upper threshold of remaining transmission time factor|
|delayi j||Delay between node i and node j|
|LOW & MEDIUM & HIGH||LOW & MEDIUM & HIGH transmission rate of data packets|
|T||Estimated transmission time|
|L||Remaining transmission time of data packet|
|ν||Average transmission rate|
|t||Maximum remaining transmission time of data packet|
|h||Average length of one hop|
|e||Average energy consumption of each transmission|
|r||Sensing radius of node|
|c||Confidence variable of node|
|Routing Protocol||SPEED, SPEED-T, SPEED-S, MMSPEED, FTSPEED, DMRF|
|Buffer Size||100 Bytes|
|Data packet Size||32 Bytes|
|Region Size||(20 m, 20 m)|
|Node Distribution||Random and Uniform|
|Maximum Transmission Distance||30 m|
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