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Sensors 2010, 10(3), 1871-1889; doi:10.3390/s100301871

Raman Spectroscopy and Related Techniques in Biomedicine

School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 January 2010 / Revised: 21 February 2010 / Accepted: 1 March 2010 / Published: 9 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing)
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In this review we describe label-free optical spectroscopy techniques which are able to non-invasively measure the (bio)chemistry in biological systems. Raman spectroscopy uses visible or near-infrared light to measure a spectrum of vibrational bonds in seconds. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman (CARS) microscopy and stimulated Raman loss (SRL) microscopy are orders of magnitude more efficient than Raman spectroscopy, and are able to acquire high quality chemically-specific images in seconds. We discuss the benefits and limitations of all techniques, with particular emphasis on applications in biomedicine—both in vivo (using fiber endoscopes) and in vitro (in optical microscopes).
Keywords: Raman spectroscopy; CARS microscopy; Raman imaging Raman spectroscopy; CARS microscopy; Raman imaging

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Downes, A.; Elfick, A. Raman Spectroscopy and Related Techniques in Biomedicine. Sensors 2010, 10, 1871-1889.

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