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Sensors 2010, 10(12), 11352-11368; doi:10.3390/s101211352

Sensing-Applications of Surface-Based Single Vesicle Arrays

1
Bio-Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
2
Nano-Science Center, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
3
Lundbeck Foundation Center for Biomembranes in Nanomedicine, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
4
Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2010 / Revised: 30 November 2010 / Accepted: 7 December 2010 / Published: 13 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Denmark)
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Abstract

A single lipid vesicle can be regarded as an autonomous ultra-miniaturised 3D biomimetic “scaffold” (Ø ≥ 13 nm) ideally suited for reconstitution and interrogation of biochemical processes. The enclosing lipid bilayer membrane of a vesicle can be applied for studying binding (protein/lipid or receptor/ligand interactions) or transmembrane events (membrane permeability or ion channel activation) while the aqueous vesicle lumen can be used for confining few or single macromolecules and probe, e.g., protein folding, catalytic pathways of enzymes or more complex biochemical reactions, such as signal transduction cascades. Immobilisation (arraying) of single vesicles on a solid support is an extremely useful technique that allows detailed characterisation of vesicle preparations using surface sensitive techniques, in particular fluorescence microscopy. Surface-based single vesicle arrays allow a plethora of prototypic sensing applications in a high throughput format with high spatial and high temporal resolution. In this review we present a series of applications of single vesicle arrays for screening/sensing of: membrane curvature dependent protein-lipid interactions, bilayer tension, reactions triggered in the vesicle lumen, the activity of transmembrane protein channels and biological membrane fusion reactions.
Keywords: vesicles; single vesicles; model membrane systems; nanoreactors vesicles; single vesicles; model membrane systems; nanoreactors
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Christensen, S.M.; Stamou, D.G. Sensing-Applications of Surface-Based Single Vesicle Arrays. Sensors 2010, 10, 11352-11368.

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