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Sensors 2010, 10(10), 9252-9285; doi:10.3390/s101009252
Article

Intelligent Sensor Positioning and Orientation Through Constructive Neural Network-Embedded INS/GPS Integration Algorithms

 and *
Received: 6 September 2010; in revised form: 30 September 2010 / Accepted: 14 October 2010 / Published: 15 October 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensors - 2010)
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Abstract: Mobile mapping systems have been widely applied for acquiring spatial information in applications such as spatial information systems and 3D city models. Nowadays the most common technologies used for positioning and orientation of a mobile mapping system include a Global Positioning System (GPS) as the major positioning sensor and an Inertial Navigation System (INS) as the major orientation sensor. In the classical approach, the limitations of the Kalman Filter (KF) method and the overall price of multi-sensor systems have limited the popularization of most land-based mobile mapping applications. Although intelligent sensor positioning and orientation schemes consisting of Multi-layer Feed-forward Neural Networks (MFNNs), one of the most famous Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), and KF/smoothers, have been proposed in order to enhance the performance of low cost Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) INS/GPS integrated systems, the automation of the MFNN applied has not proven as easy as initially expected. Therefore, this study not only addresses the problems of insufficient automation in the conventional methodology that has been applied in MFNN-KF/smoother algorithms for INS/GPS integrated systems proposed in previous studies, but also exploits and analyzes the idea of developing alternative intelligent sensor positioning and orientation schemes that integrate various sensors in more automatic ways. The proposed schemes are implemented using one of the most famous constructive neural networks––the Cascade Correlation Neural Network (CCNNs)––to overcome the limitations of conventional techniques based on KF/smoother algorithms as well as previously developed MFNN-smoother schemes. The CCNNs applied also have the advantage of a more flexible topology compared to MFNNs. Based on the experimental data utilized the preliminary results presented in this article illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes compared to smoother algorithms as well as the MFNN-smoother schemes.
Keywords: GPS/INS; sensor integration; mobile mapping systems; constructive neural networks GPS/INS; sensor integration; mobile mapping systems; constructive neural networks
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chiang, K.-W.; Chang, H.-W. Intelligent Sensor Positioning and Orientation Through Constructive Neural Network-Embedded INS/GPS Integration Algorithms. Sensors 2010, 10, 9252-9285.

AMA Style

Chiang K-W, Chang H-W. Intelligent Sensor Positioning and Orientation Through Constructive Neural Network-Embedded INS/GPS Integration Algorithms. Sensors. 2010; 10(10):9252-9285.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chiang, Kai-Wei; Chang, Hsiu-Wen. 2010. "Intelligent Sensor Positioning and Orientation Through Constructive Neural Network-Embedded INS/GPS Integration Algorithms." Sensors 10, no. 10: 9252-9285.


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