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Diversity 2017, 9(4), 46; doi:10.3390/d9040046

Positive Diagnosis of Ancient Leprosy and Tuberculosis Using Ancient DNA and Lipid Biomarkers

1
Centre for Clinical Microbiology, University College London, London, NW3 2PF, UK
2
Department of Microbial Sciences, FHMS, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, UK
3
Institute of Biology and Infection, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 8 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 15 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ancient DNA)
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Abstract

Diagnosis of leprosy and tuberculosis in archaeological material is most informative when based upon entire genomes. Ancient DNA (aDNA) is often degraded but amplification of specific fragments also provides reliable diagnoses. Cell wall lipid biomarkers can distinguish ancient leprosy from tuberculosis and DNA extraction residues can be utilized. The diagnostic power of combined aDNA and lipid biomarkers is illustrated by key cases of ancient leprosy and/or tuberculosis. Human tuberculosis was demonstrated in a woman and child from Atlit-Yam (~9 ka) in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the 600 BCE Egyptian “Granville” mummy. Both aDNA and lipids confirmed Pleistocene tuberculosis in a ~17 ka bison from Natural Trap Cave, Wyoming. Leprosy is exemplified by cases from Winchester (10th–12th centuries CE) and Great Chesterford (5th–6th centuries CE). A mixed infection from Kiskundorozsma, Hungary (7th century CE) allowed lipid biomarkers to assess the relative load of leprosy and tuberculosis. Essential protocols for aDNA amplification and analysis of mycolic, mycolipenic, mycocerosic acid, and phthiocerol lipid biomarkers are summarized. Diagnoses of ancient mycobacterial disease can be extended beyond the reach of whole genomics by combinations of aDNA amplification and lipid biomarkers, with sole use of the latter having the potential to recognize even older cases. View Full-Text
Keywords: aDNA; cell wall lipids; evolution; genotyping; Mycobacterium leprae; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; palaeopathology aDNA; cell wall lipids; evolution; genotyping; Mycobacterium leprae; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; palaeopathology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Donoghue, H.D.; Taylor, G.M.; Stewart, G.R.; Lee, O.Y.-C.; Wu, H.H.T.; Besra, G.S.; Minnikin, D.E. Positive Diagnosis of Ancient Leprosy and Tuberculosis Using Ancient DNA and Lipid Biomarkers. Diversity 2017, 9, 46.

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