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Diversity 2016, 8(4), 26; doi:10.3390/d8040026

Differential Physiological Responses of Portuguese Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes under Aluminium Stress

1
Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
2
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), c/o ILRI, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya
3
BioISI—Biosystems & Integrative Sciences Institute, University of Lisbon, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal
4
Department of Animal Biology, Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Autonomous University of Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain
5
Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mario A. Pagnotta
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 3 December 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization and Preservation of Plant Genetic Diversity)
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Abstract

The major limitation of cereal production in acidic soils is aluminium (Al) phytotoxicity which inhibits root growth. Recent evidence indicates that different genotypes within the same species have evolved different mechanisms to cope with this stress. With these facts in mind, root responses of two highly Al tolerant Portuguese bread wheat genotypes—Barbela 7/72/92 and Viloso mole—were investigated along with check genotype Anahuac (Al sensitive), using different physiological and histochemical assays. All the assays confirmed that Barbela 7/72/92 is much more tolerant to Al phytotoxicity than Viloso Mole. Our results demonstrate that the greater tolerance to Al phytotoxicity in Barbela 7/72/92 than in Viloso Mole relies on numerous factors, including higher levels of organic acid (OAs) efflux, particularly citrate efflux. This might be associated with the lower accumulation of Al in the root tips, restricting the Al-induced lipid peroxidation and the consequent plasma membrane integrity loss, thus allowing better root regrowth under Al stress conditions. Furthermore, the presence of root hairs in Barbela 7/72/92 might also help to circumvent Al toxicity by facilitating a more efficient uptake of water and nutrients, particularly under Al stress on acid soils. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that Portuguese bread wheat genotype Barbela 7/72/92 represents an alternative source of Al tolerance in bread wheat and could potentially be used to improve the wheat productivity in acidic soils. View Full-Text
Keywords: aluminium stress; bread wheat; phytotoxicity; physiological; histochemical assays aluminium stress; bread wheat; phytotoxicity; physiological; histochemical assays
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Garcia-Oliveira, A.L.; Martins-Lopes, P.; Tolrà, R.; Poschenrieder, C.; Guedes-Pinto, H.; Benito, C. Differential Physiological Responses of Portuguese Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes under Aluminium Stress. Diversity 2016, 8, 26.

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