Next Article in Journal
Structure, Stability and Interaction Studies on Schiff Base Analogue Systems
Next Article in Special Issue
Muscle Contraction and Force: the Importance of an Ancillary Network, Nutrient Supply and Waste Removal
Previous Article in Journal
Redox Behavior of Anticancer Chalcone on a Glassy Carbon Electrode and Evaluation of its Interaction Parameters with DNA
Previous Article in Special Issue
Thick and Thin Filament Gene Mutations in Striated Muscle Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(8), 1435-1452; doi:10.3390/ijms9081435

Water and Muscle Contraction

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ferrara University, Via Borsari 46, 44100 Ferrara, Italy
Received: 4 June 2008 / Revised: 29 July 2008 / Accepted: 30 July 2008 / Published: 18 August 2008
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [155 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |  


The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.
Keywords: Water; muscle contraction; osmotic pressure; chemical potential; stiffness; viscosity; working stroke. Water; muscle contraction; osmotic pressure; chemical potential; stiffness; viscosity; working stroke.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Grazi, E. Water and Muscle Contraction. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9, 1435-1452.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert