Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(8), 1435-1452; doi:10.3390/ijms9081435

Water and Muscle Contraction

Received: 4 June 2008; in revised form: 29 July 2008 / Accepted: 30 July 2008 / Published: 18 August 2008
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.
Keywords: Water; muscle contraction; osmotic pressure; chemical potential; stiffness; viscosity; working stroke.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grazi, E. Water and Muscle Contraction. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9, 1435-1452.

AMA Style

Grazi E. Water and Muscle Contraction. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2008; 9(8):1435-1452.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grazi, Enrico. 2008. "Water and Muscle Contraction." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 9, no. 8: 1435-1452.

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