Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2006, 7(11), 497-509; doi:10.3390/i7110497
Review

Application of Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods for the Analysis of Imidazolium and Pyridinium Cations as Used in Ionic Liquids

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, PL-80-952 Gdansk, Poland
Received: 30 August 2006; Accepted: 16 November 2006 / Published: 17 November 2006
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids)
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Abstract: Interest in ionic liquids for their potential in different chemical processes isconstantly increasing, as they are claimed to be environmentally benign – excellent, non-volatile solvents for a wide range of applications. The wide applicability of thesecompounds also demands reliable, relatively simple and reproducible analytical techniques.These methods must be applicable not only to different technical or natural matrices but alsoto the very low concentrations that are likely to be present in biological and environmentalsystems. In this review, therefore, methods for separating and analysing imidazolium- andpyridinium-type ionic liquids in aqueous matrices using high performance liquidchromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) are examined. The techniquesfor identifying ionic liquids are meant primarily to track the concentrations of ionic liquidsas residues not only in products and wastes but also in biological or environmental samples.The application of hyphenated techniques in this field is intended to selectively separate thequaternary entity from other cationic and non-ionic species present in the matrix, and toenable its fine-scale quantification. Nowadays, methods developed for cation analysis arebased mostly on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, ionchromatography, ion-pair chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, where variousbuffered mobile phases are used.
Keywords: ionic liquids; imidazolium salts; pyridinium salts; analysis; separation; HPLC; ionic liquids; imidazolium salts; pyridinium salts; analysis; separation; HPLC; CE

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MDPI and ACS Style

Stepnowski, P. Application of Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods for the Analysis of Imidazolium and Pyridinium Cations as Used in Ionic Liquids. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2006, 7, 497-509.

AMA Style

Stepnowski P. Application of Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods for the Analysis of Imidazolium and Pyridinium Cations as Used in Ionic Liquids. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2006; 7(11):497-509.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stepnowski, P. 2006. "Application of Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods for the Analysis of Imidazolium and Pyridinium Cations as Used in Ionic Liquids." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 7, no. 11: 497-509.

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