Next Article in Journal
New Insights in Anti-Angiogenesis in Multiple Myeloma
Previous Article in Journal
Aspirin is Involved in the Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, Cell Migration, and Invasion of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Previous Article in Special Issue
Diethyl Blechnic, a Novel Natural Product Isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Inhibits Doxorubicin-Induced Apoptosis by Inhibiting ROS and Activating JNK1/2
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2030; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072030

A Current Overview of the Biological and Cellular Effects of Nanosilver

1
Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel by Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada
2
Institute of Biochemistry, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel by Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada
3
Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel by Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radicals and Oxidants in Pathogenesis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [778 KB, uploaded 12 July 2018]   |  

Abstract

Nanosilver plays an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, and is becoming increasingly used for applications in nanomedicine. Nanosilver ranges from 1 to 100 nanometers in diameter. Smaller particles more readily enter cells and interact with the cellular components. The exposure dose, particle size, coating, and aggregation state of the nanosilver, as well as the cell type or organism on which it is tested, are all large determining factors on the effect and potential toxicity of nanosilver. A high exposure dose to nanosilver alters the cellular stress responses and initiates cascades of signalling that can eventually trigger organelle autophagy and apoptosis. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the effects of nanosilver on cellular metabolic function and response to stress. Both the causative effects of nanosilver on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and hypoxic stress—as well as the effects of nanosilver on the responses to such stresses—are outlined. The interactions and effects of nanosilver on cellular uptake, oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species), inflammation, hypoxic response, mitochondrial function, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function and the unfolded protein response, autophagy and apoptosis, angiogenesis, epigenetics, genotoxicity, and cancer development and tumorigenesis—as well as other pathway alterations—are examined in this review. View Full-Text
Keywords: silver nanoparticles; nanosilver; endocytosis; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; inflammation; wound healing; hypoxia; mitochondria; endoplasmic reticulum stress; unfolded protein response; autophagy; apoptosis; angiogenesis; epigenetics; genotoxicity; cancer; anti-cancer silver nanoparticles; nanosilver; endocytosis; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; inflammation; wound healing; hypoxia; mitochondria; endoplasmic reticulum stress; unfolded protein response; autophagy; apoptosis; angiogenesis; epigenetics; genotoxicity; cancer; anti-cancer
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cameron, S.J.; Hosseinian, F.; Willmore, W.G. A Current Overview of the Biological and Cellular Effects of Nanosilver. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2030.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top