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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2002; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072002

Vitamin D’s Effect on the Proliferation and Inflammation of Human Intervertebral Disc Cells in Relation to the Functional Vitamin D Receptor Gene FokI Polymorphism

1
Orthopaedic Biotechnology Lab, IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute, Via R. Galeazzi 4, 20161 Milan, Italy
2
GSpine4, IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute, Via R. Galeazzi 4, 20161 Milan, Italy
3
Scoliosis Unit, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology-Spine Surgery III, IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute, Via R. Galeazzi 4, 20161 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health)
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Abstract

Vitamin D is known to have immunomodulatory effects, is involved in osteo-cartilaginous metabolism, and may have a role in human intervertebral disc pathophysiology. Although a link between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene variants and disc degeneration-related pathologies has been observed, its functional contribution to pathologic processes has not been assessed yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of disc cells to vitamin D in terms of the regulation of proliferation, metabolism, and inflammatory processes, with a particular focus on the FokI VDR genotype. However, although it was found that vitamin D had a pro-apoptotic effect regardless of genotype, an up-regulation of IL-1Ra and downregulation of IL-6 was found to be evident only in Ff cells. Regarding the metabolic effects, in Ff cells, vitamin D promoted an upregulation of the aggrecan in inflammatory conditions but did not have an effect on the expression of collagen-related markers. Moreover, cells bearing the Ff genotype were the most responsive to vitamin D in the upregulation of catabolic markers. In addition, in contrast to the FF genotype, vitamin D downregulated the vitamin D-dependent signaling pathway in inflamed Ff cells, counteracting the inflammation-mediated catabolic effects. In conclusion, Ff cells were found to be more responsive to the anti-inflammatory and catabolic effects of vitamin D, which is likely to be related to matrix remodeling. View Full-Text
Keywords: intervertebral disc; vitamin D; vitamin D receptor polymorphism; proliferation; inflammation intervertebral disc; vitamin D; vitamin D receptor polymorphism; proliferation; inflammation
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De Luca, P.; de Girolamo, L.; Perucca Orfei, C.; Viganò, M.; Cecchinato, R.; Brayda-Bruno, M.; Colombini, A. Vitamin D’s Effect on the Proliferation and Inflammation of Human Intervertebral Disc Cells in Relation to the Functional Vitamin D Receptor Gene FokI Polymorphism. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2002.

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