Next Article in Journal
Complement Activation in Liver Transplantation: Role of Donor Macrosteatosis and Implications in Delayed Graft Function
Next Article in Special Issue
Conjugation with Dihydrolipoic Acid Imparts Caffeic Acid Ester Potent Inhibitory Effect on Dopa Oxidase Activity of Human Tyrosinase
Previous Article in Journal
Regulation of von-Willebrand Factor Secretion from Endothelial Cells by the Annexin A2-S100A10 Complex
Previous Article in Special Issue
Clinical and Molecular Aspects of Vitiligo Treatments
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1753; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061753

The Late Stages of Melanogenesis: Exploring the Chemical Facets and the Application Opportunities

1
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, I-80126 Naples, Italy
2
Hair Care Products Research Laboratories, Kao Corporation, Tokyo 131-8501, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melanins and Melanogenesis: From Nature to Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1076 KB, uploaded 13 June 2018]   |  

Abstract

In the last decade, the late stages of melanin biosynthesis involving the oxidative polymerization of 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) and 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) have been extensively investigated. Most of the information derived from a biomimetic approach in which the oxidation of melanogenic indoles was carried out under conditions mimicking those occurring in the biological environment. Characterization of the early oligomers allowed for drawing a structural picture of DHI and DHICA melanins, providing also an interpretative basis for the different properties exhibited by these pigments, e.g., the chromophore and the antioxidant ability. The improved knowledge has opened new perspectives toward the exploitation of the unique chemistry of melanins and its precursors in cosmetic and health care applications. A noticeable example is the development of an innovative hair dyeing system that is based on the marked ease of DHI to give rise to black melanin on air oxidation under slightly alkaline conditions. The advantage of this method for a step-wise coverage of gray hair with a natural shade pigmentation on repeated treatment with a DHI-based formulation with respect to traditional dyes is presented. A variant of DHICA melanin combining solubility in water-miscible organic solvents, an intense chromophore in the UltraViolet-A UV-A region, and a marked antioxidant potency was evaluated as an ingredient for cosmetic formulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanins; chromophore; antioxidant; 5,6-dihydroxyindoles; hair dyeing; cosmetic formulations melanins; chromophore; antioxidant; 5,6-dihydroxyindoles; hair dyeing; cosmetic formulations
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Panzella, L.; Ebato, A.; Napolitano, A.; Koike, K. The Late Stages of Melanogenesis: Exploring the Chemical Facets and the Application Opportunities. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1753.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top