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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1724; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061724

Role of Magnesium Deficiency in Promoting Atherosclerosis, Endothelial Dysfunction, and Arterial Stiffening as Risk Factors for Hypertension

1
Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University-Pleven, 1 Kliment Ohridski Str., 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria
2
Department of Physiology, Medical University-Pleven, 1 Kliment Ohridski Str., 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health)
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Abstract

Arterial hypertension is a disease with a complex pathogenesis. Despite considerable knowledge about this socially significant disease, the role of magnesium deficiency (MgD) as a risk factor is not fully understood. Magnesium is a natural calcium antagonist. It potentiates the production of local vasodilator mediators (prostacyclin and nitric oxide) and alters vascular responses to a variety of vasoactive substances (endothelin-1, angiotensin II, and catecholamines). MgD stimulates the production of aldosterone and potentiates vascular inflammatory response, while expression/activity of various antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) and the levels of important antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium) are decreased. Magnesium balances the effects of catecholamines in acute and chronic stress. MgD may be associated with the development of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and changes in lipid metabolism, which enhance atherosclerotic changes and arterial stiffness. Magnesium regulates collagen and elastin turnover in the vascular wall and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Magnesium helps to protect the elastic fibers from calcium deposition and maintains the elasticity of the vessels. Considering the numerous positive effects on a number of mechanisms related to arterial hypertension, consuming a healthy diet that provides the recommended amount of magnesium can be an appropriate strategy for helping control blood pressure. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnesium deficiency; arterial hypertension; vascular tone; arterial stiffness; vascular remodeling; insulin resistance; magnesium supplementation; dietary magnesium intake magnesium deficiency; arterial hypertension; vascular tone; arterial stiffness; vascular remodeling; insulin resistance; magnesium supplementation; dietary magnesium intake
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Kostov, K.; Halacheva, L. Role of Magnesium Deficiency in Promoting Atherosclerosis, Endothelial Dysfunction, and Arterial Stiffening as Risk Factors for Hypertension. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1724.

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