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Open AccessCommunication
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051507

Reproduction of Characteristics of Extracellular Matrices in Specific Longitudinal Depth Zone Cartilage within Spherical Organoids in Response to Changes in Osmotic Pressure

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 12 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Basis of Musculoskeletal Regeneration)
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Abstract

Articular cartilage is compressed with joint-loading and weight-bearing stresses, followed by a bulging of the tissue during times of off-loading. This loading and off-loading causes changes in water content, and thus alterations in osmotic pressure. Another unique characteristic of articular cartilage is that it has longitudinal depth: surface, middle, and deep zones. Since each zone is composed of unique components of highly negative extracellular matrices, each zone has a different level of osmotic pressure. It was unclear how changes in osmotic pressure affected chondrocyte matrix turnover in specific longitudinal zones. Therefore, we hypothesized that a change in extrinsic osmotic pressure would alter the production of extracellular matrices by zone-specific chondrocytes. We incubated spheroidal cartilage organoids, formed by specific longitudinal depth zone-derived chondrocytes, under different levels of osmotic pressure. We compared the gene expression and the immunohistology of the matrix proteins produced by the zone-specific chondrocytes. We found that high osmotic pressure significantly upregulated the transient expression of aggrecan and collagen type-II by all zone-derived chondrocytes (p < 0.05). At a high osmotic pressure, surface-zone chondrocytes significantly upregulated the expression of collagen type-I (p < 0.05), and middle- and deep-zone chondrocytes significantly upregulated matrix metalloproteinase-13 (p < 0.05). The spheroids, once exposed to high osmotic pressure, accumulated extracellular matrices with empty spaces. Our findings show that chondrocytes have zone-specific turnover of extracellular matrices in response to changes in osmotic pressure. View Full-Text
Keywords: molecular profile; extracellular matrix; osmotic pressure; depth articular cartilage; spheroidal organoid; cartilage regeneration molecular profile; extracellular matrix; osmotic pressure; depth articular cartilage; spheroidal organoid; cartilage regeneration
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Takada, E.; Mizuno, S. Reproduction of Characteristics of Extracellular Matrices in Specific Longitudinal Depth Zone Cartilage within Spherical Organoids in Response to Changes in Osmotic Pressure. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1507.

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