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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051492

Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Benzimidazole-Derived Biocompatible Copper(II) and Zinc(II) Complexes as Anticancer Chemotherapeutics

1
Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, KSA
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, KSA
3
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, KSA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract

Herein, we have synthesized and characterized a new benzimidazole-derived “BnI” ligand and its copper(II) complex, [Cu(BnI)2], 1, and zinc(II) complex, [Zn(BnI)2], 2, using elemental analysis and various spectroscopic techniques. Interaction of complexes 1 and 2 with the biomolecules viz. HSA (human serum albumin) and DNA were studied using absorption titration, fluorescence techniques, and in silico molecular docking studies. The results exhibited the significant binding propensity of both complexes 1 and 2, but complex 1 showed more avid binding to HSA and DNA. Also, the nuclease activity of 1 and 2 was analyzed for pBR322 DNA, and the results obtained confirmed the potential of the complexes to cleave DNA. Moreover, the mechanistic pathway was studied in the presence of various radical scavengers, which revealed that ROS (reactive oxygen species) are responsible for the nuclease activity in complex 1, whereas in complex 2, the possibility of hydrolytic cleavage also exists. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of the ligand and complexes 1 and 2 were studied on a panel of five different human cancer cells, namely: HepG2, SK-MEL-1, HT018, HeLa, and MDA-MB 231, and compared with the standard drug, cisplatin. The results are quite promising against MDA-MB 231 (breast cancer cell line of 1), with an IC50 value that is nearly the same as the standard drug. Apoptosis was induced by complex 1 on MDA-MB 231 cells predominantly as studied by flow cytometry (FACS). The adhesion and migration of cancer cells were also examined upon treatment of complexes 1 and 2. Furthermore, the in vivo chronic toxicity profile of complexes 1 and 2 was also studied on all of the major organs of the mice, and found them to be less toxic. Thus, the results warrant further investigations of complex 1. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal complexes; interaction with biomolecules; nuclease activity; cytotoxicity; toxicity metal complexes; interaction with biomolecules; nuclease activity; cytotoxicity; toxicity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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AlAjmi, M.F.; Hussain, A.; Rehman, M.T.; Khan, A.A.; Shaikh, P.A.; Khan, R.A. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Benzimidazole-Derived Biocompatible Copper(II) and Zinc(II) Complexes as Anticancer Chemotherapeutics. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1492.

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