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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051420

Effects of Protocatechuic Acid (PCA) on Global Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Hippocampal Neuronal Death

1
Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
2
Department of Medical Science, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
3
Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Hallym University Medical Center, Anyang 14068, Korea
4
College of Medicine, Neurology, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Pharmacology and Pathology of Strokes)
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Abstract

Global cerebral ischemia (GCI) is one of the main causes of hippocampal neuronal death. Ischemic damage can be rescued by early blood reperfusion. However, under some circumstances reperfusion itself can trigger a cell death process that is initiated by the reintroduction of blood, followed by the production of superoxide, a blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption and microglial activation. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a major metabolite of the antioxidant polyphenols, which have been discovered in green tea. PCA has been shown to have antioxidant effects on healthy cells and anti-proliferative effects on tumor cells. To test whether PCA can prevent ischemia-induced hippocampal neuronal death, rats were injected with PCA (30 mg/kg/day) per oral (p.o) for one week after global ischemia. To evaluate degenerating neurons, oxidative stress, microglial activation and BBB disruption, we performed Fluoro-Jade B (FJB), 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE), CD11b, GFAP and IgG staining. In the present study, we found that PCA significantly decreased degenerating neuronal cell death, oxidative stress, microglial activation, astrocyte activation and BBB disruption compared with the vehicle-treated group after ischemia. In addition, an ischemia-induced reduction in glutathione (GSH) concentration in hippocampal neurons was recovered by PCA administration. Therefore, the administration of PCA may be further investigated as a promising tool for decreasing hippocampal neuronal death after global cerebral ischemia. View Full-Text
Keywords: global ischemia; neuron death; protocatechuic acid; oxidative stress; blood–brain barrier; microglial activation global ischemia; neuron death; protocatechuic acid; oxidative stress; blood–brain barrier; microglial activation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kho, A.R.; Choi, B.Y.; Lee, S.H.; Hong, D.K.; Lee, S.H.; Jeong, J.H.; Park, K.-H.; Song, H.K.; Choi, H.C.; Suh, S.W. Effects of Protocatechuic Acid (PCA) on Global Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Hippocampal Neuronal Death. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1420.

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