Next Article in Journal
Sequencing, Characterization, and Comparative Analyses of the Plastome of Caragana rosea var. rosea
Previous Article in Journal
Turnover of Glycerolipid Metabolite Pool and Seed Viability
Previous Article in Special Issue
Protein Expression in Tonsillar and Base of Tongue Cancer and in Relation to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Clinical Outcome
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051418

The Impact of Human Papilloma Viruses, Matrix Metallo-Proteinases and HIV Protease Inhibitors on the Onset and Progression of Uterine Cervix Epithelial Tumors: A Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies

1
Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 1 via Montpellier, 00133 Rome, Italy
2
National HIV/AIDS Research Center, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 299 viale Regina Elena, 00161 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 March 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Polyomaviruses and Papillomaviruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3347 KB, uploaded 9 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Infection of uterine cervix epithelial cells by the Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV) is associated with the development of dysplastic/hyperplastic lesions, termed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). CIN lesions may regress, persist or progress to invasive cervical carcinoma (CC), a leading cause of death worldwide. CIN is particularly frequent and aggressive in women infected by both HPV and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), as compared to the general female population. In these individuals, however, therapeutic regimens employing HIV protease inhibitors (HIV-PI) have reduced CIN incidence and/or clinical progression, shedding light on the mechanism(s) of its development. This article reviews published work concerning: (i) the role of HPV proteins (including HPV-E5, E6 and E7) and of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) in CIN evolution into invasive CC; and (ii) the effect of HIV-PI on events leading to CIN progression such as basement membrane and extracellular matrix invasion by HPV-positive CIN cells and the formation of new blood vessels. Results from the reviewed literature indicate that CIN clinical progression can be monitored by evaluating the expression of MMPs and HPV proteins and they suggest the use of HIV-PI or their derivatives for the block of CIN evolution into CC in both HIV-infected and uninfected women. View Full-Text
Keywords: HPV; uterine CIN; uterine cervical carcinoma; MMP; HIV-PI HPV; uterine CIN; uterine cervical carcinoma; MMP; HIV-PI
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Barillari, G.; Monini, P.; Sgadari, C.; Ensoli, B. The Impact of Human Papilloma Viruses, Matrix Metallo-Proteinases and HIV Protease Inhibitors on the Onset and Progression of Uterine Cervix Epithelial Tumors: A Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1418.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top