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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1178; doi:10.3390/ijms19041178

Development and Characterization of Novel Genic-SSR Markers in Apple-Juniper Rust Pathogen Gymnosporangium yamadae (Pucciniales: Pucciniaceae) Using Next-Generation Sequencing

1
The Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
2
Museum of Beijing Forestry University, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant–Fungal Interactions)
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Abstract

The Apple-Juniper rust, Gymnosporangium yamadae, is an economically important pathogen of apples and junipers in Asia. The absence of markers has hampered the study of the genetic diversity of this widespread pathogen. In our study, we developed twenty-two novel microsatellite markers for G. yamadae from randomly sequenced regions of the transcriptome, using next-generation sequencing methods. These polymorphic markers were also tested on 96 G. yamadae individuals from two geographical populations. The allele numbers ranged from 2 to 9 with an average value of 6 per locus. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.099 to 0.782 with an average value of 0.48. Furthermore, the observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.683 and 0.04 to 0.820, respectively. These novel developed microsatellites provide abundant molecular markers for investigating the genetic structure and genetic diversity of G. yamadae, which will help us to better understand disease epidemics and the origin and migration routes of the Apple-Juniper rust pathogen. Further studies will also be completed to dissect how human activities influence the formation of current population structures. Furthermore, these SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers can also be used as tools to identify virulence by mapping the whole genomes of different virulent populations. These markers will, thus, assist the development of effective risk-assessment models and management systems for the Apple-Juniper rust pathogen. View Full-Text
Keywords: Apple-Juniper rust; Gymnosporangium yamadae; simple sequence repeat; next-generation sequencing Apple-Juniper rust; Gymnosporangium yamadae; simple sequence repeat; next-generation sequencing
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Tao, S.-Q.; Cao, B.; Tian, C.-M.; Liang, Y.-M. Development and Characterization of Novel Genic-SSR Markers in Apple-Juniper Rust Pathogen Gymnosporangium yamadae (Pucciniales: Pucciniaceae) Using Next-Generation Sequencing. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1178.

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