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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041136

The Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Bone Metastasis

1
Bone Physiopathology Group, Multifactorial Disease and Complex Phenotype Research Area, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, 00165 Rome, Italy
2
Clinical Laboratory, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, 00165 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Metastasis: Pathophysiology and Molecular Mechanisms)
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Abstract

Multiple types of cancer have the specific ability to home to the bone microenvironment and cause metastatic lesions. Despite being the focus of intense investigation, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the metastasis of disseminated tumor cells still remain largely unknown. Bone metastases severely impact quality of life since they are associated with pain, fractures, and bone marrow aplasia. In this review, we will summarize the recent discoveries on the role of extracellular vesicles (EV) in the regulation of bone remodeling activity and bone metastasis occurrence. Indeed, it was shown that extracellular vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, released from tumor cells can modify the bone microenvironment, allowing the formation of osteolytic, osteosclerotic, and mixed mestastases. In turn, bone-derived EV can stimulate the proliferation of tumor cells. The inhibition of EV-mediated crosstalk between cancer and bone cells could represent a new therapeutic target for bone metastasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone metastasis; extracellular vesicles; exosomes bone metastasis; extracellular vesicles; exosomes
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Rossi, M.; Battafarano, G.; D’Agostini, M.; Del Fattore, A. The Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Bone Metastasis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1136.

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