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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030770

From the Psychiatrist’s Couch to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Bipolar Disease in a Dish

Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Translational Psychiatry, 80804 Munich, Germany
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Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disease Modeling Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells)
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Abstract

Bipolar disease (BD) is one of the major public health burdens worldwide and more people are affected every year. Comprehensive genetic studies have associated thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BD risk; yet, very little is known about their functional roles. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are powerful tools for investigating the relationship between genotype and phenotype in disease-relevant tissues and cell types. Neural cells generated from BD-specific iPSCs are thought to capture associated genetic risk factors, known and unknown, and to allow the analysis of their effects on cellular and molecular phenotypes. Interestingly, an increasing number of studies on BD-derived iPSCs report distinct alterations in neural patterning, postmitotic calcium signaling, and neuronal excitability. Importantly, these alterations are partly normalized by lithium, a first line treatment in BD. In light of these exciting findings, we discuss current challenges to the field of iPSC-based disease modelling and future steps to be taken in order to fully exploit the potential of this approach for the investigation of BD and the development of new therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: bipolar disease; patient-specific iPSC; early neurodevelopment; lithium; neuronal excitability; calcium signaling bipolar disease; patient-specific iPSC; early neurodevelopment; lithium; neuronal excitability; calcium signaling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Hoffmann, A.; Sportelli, V.; Ziller, M.; Spengler, D. From the Psychiatrist’s Couch to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Bipolar Disease in a Dish. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 770.

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