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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030758

A Three–MicroRNA Signature as a Potential Biomarker for the Early Detection of Oral Cancer

1
Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan
2
Department of Medical Research, Hsinchu Mackay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan
3
Department of Medicine, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City 252, Taiwan
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hsinchu Mackay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan
5
Mackay Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management College, Taipei 112, Taiwan
6
Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan
7
Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
8
Institute of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan
9
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
10
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan
11
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
12
Departments of Pediatrics and Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 3 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA as Biomarkers in Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy)
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Abstract

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is often diagnosed at a late stage and may be malignantly transformed from oral leukoplakia (OL). This study aimed to identify potential plasma microRNAs (miRNAs) for the early detection of oral cancer. Plasma from normal, OL, and OSCC patients were evaluated. Small RNA sequencing was used to screen the differently expressed miRNAs among the groups. Next, these miRNAs were validated with individual samples by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays in the training phase (n = 72) and validation phase (n = 178). The possible physiological roles of the identified miRNAs were further investigated using bioinformatics analysis. Three miRNAs (miR-222-3p, miR-150-5p, and miR-423-5p) were identified as differentially expressed among groups; miR-222-3p and miR-423-5p negatively correlated with T stage, lymph node metastasis status, and clinical stage. A high diagnostic accuracy (Area under curve = 0.88) was demonstrated for discriminating OL from OSCC. Bioinformatics analysis reveals that miR-423-5p and miR-222-3p are significantly over-expressed in oral cancer tissues and involved in various cancer pathways. The three-plasma miRNA panel may be useful to monitor malignant progression from OL to OSCC and as potential biomarkers for early detection of oral cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: miRNA; biomarker; oral cancer; leukoplakia; early diagnosis miRNA; biomarker; oral cancer; leukoplakia; early diagnosis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Chang, Y.-A.; Weng, S.-L.; Yang, S.-F.; Chou, C.-H.; Huang, W.-C.; Tu, S.-J.; Chang, T.-H.; Huang, C.-N.; Jong, Y.-J.; Huang, H.-D. A Three–MicroRNA Signature as a Potential Biomarker for the Early Detection of Oral Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 758.

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