Next Article in Journal
Ion Channel Disorders and Sudden Cardiac Death
Previous Article in Journal
Structure-Activity Relationships of Thiazolyl Resorcinols, Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Human Tyrosinase
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030691

Minoxidil Promotes Hair Growth through Stimulation of Growth Factor Release from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

1
College of Pharmacy, Yonsei University, Incheon 21983, Korea
2
STEMORE Co., Ltd., Incheon 21983, Korea
3
College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan 54538, Jeonbuk, Korea
4
Translational Research Center and Inha Research Institute for Medical Sciences, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon 21983, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4212 KB, uploaded 28 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

Minoxidil directly promotes hair growth via the stimulation of dermal papilla (DP) and epithelial cells. Alternatively, there is little evidence for indirect promotion of hair growth via stimulation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). We investigated whether minoxidil stimulates ASCs and if increased growth factor secretion by ASCs facilitates minoxidil-induced hair growth. Telogen-to-anagen induction was examined in mice. Cultured DP cells and vibrissae hair follicle organ cultures were used to further examine the underlying mechanisms. Subcutaneous injection of minoxidil-treated ASCs accelerated telogen-to-anagen transition in mice, and increased hair weight at day 14 post-injection. Minoxidil did not alter ASC proliferation, but increased migration and tube formation. Minoxidil also increased the secretion of growth factors from ASCs, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF), and platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C). Minoxidil increased extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, and concomitant upregulation of PD-ECGF and PDGF-C mRNA levels were attenuated by an ERK inhibitor. Subcutaneous injection of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C enhanced anagen induction in mice, and both CXCL1 and PDGF-C increased hair length in ex vivo organ culture. Treatment with CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C also increased the proliferation index in DP cells. Finally, topical application of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C with 2% minoxidil enhanced anagen induction when compared to minoxidil alone. Minoxidil stimulates ASC motility and increases paracrine growth factor signaling. Minoxidil-stimulated secretion of growth factors by ASCs may enhance hair growth by promoting DP proliferation. Therefore, minoxidil can be used as an ASC preconditioning agent for hair regeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: minoxidil; adipose-derived stem cells; hair growth; CXCL1; PD-ECGF; PDGF-C minoxidil; adipose-derived stem cells; hair growth; CXCL1; PD-ECGF; PDGF-C
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, N.; Shin, S.; Song, S.U.; Sung, J.-H. Minoxidil Promotes Hair Growth through Stimulation of Growth Factor Release from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 691.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top