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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010088

Differences in the Plasma Proteome of Patients with Hypothyroidism before and after Thyroid Hormone Replacement: A Proteomic Analysis

1
Obesity Research Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925 (98), Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925 (38), Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 1 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell and Molecular Biology of Thyroid Disorders)
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Abstract

Thyroid hormone is a potent stimulator of metabolism, playing a critical role in regulating energy expenditure and in key physiological mechanisms, such as growth and development. Although administration of thyroid hormone in the form of levo thyroxine (l-thyroxine) has been used to treat hypothyroidism for many years, the precise molecular basis of its physiological actions remains uncertain. Our objective was to define the changes in circulating protein levels that characterize alterations in thyroid hormone status. To do this, an integrated untargeted proteomic approach with network analysis was used. This study included 10 age-matched subjects with newly diagnosed overt hypothyroidism. Blood was collected from subjects at baseline and at intervals post-treatment with l-thyroxine until they reached to euthyroid levels. Plasma protein levels were compared by two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) pre- and post-treatment. Twenty differentially expressed protein spots were detected. Thirteen were identified, and were found to be unique protein sequences by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Ten proteins were more abundant in the hypothyroid vs. euthyroid state: complement C2, serotransferrin, complement C3, Ig κ chain C region, α-1-antichymotrypsin, complement C4-A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen α chain, apolipoprotein A-I, and Ig α-1 chain C region. Three proteins were decreased in abundance in the hypothyroid vs. euthyroid state: complement factor H, paraneoplastic antigen-like protein 6A, and α-2-macroglobulin. The differentially abundant proteins were investigated by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to reveal their associations with known biological functions. Their connectivity map included interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) as central nodes and the pathway identified with the highest score was involved in neurological disease, psychological disorders, and cellular movement. The comparison of the plasma proteome between the hypothyroid vs euthyroid states revealed differences in the abundance of proteins involved in regulating the acute phase response. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypothyroidism; l-thyroxine; proteomics; inflammation; acute phase proteins hypothyroidism; l-thyroxine; proteomics; inflammation; acute phase proteins
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Alfadda, A.A.; Benabdelkamel, H.; Masood, A.; Jammah, A.A.; Ekhzaimy, A.A. Differences in the Plasma Proteome of Patients with Hypothyroidism before and after Thyroid Hormone Replacement: A Proteomic Analysis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 88.

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