Next Article in Journal
Scanning the Immunopathogenesis of Psoriasis
Previous Article in Journal
Fungicidal PMMA-Undecylenic Acid Composites
Previous Article in Special Issue
Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 Facilitates an Intercellular Interaction between CD4+ T Cells through IL-1β Autocrine Function in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 193; doi:10.3390/ijms19010193

Twelve Weeks of Medium-Intensity Exercise Therapy Affects the Lipoprotein Profile of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

BIOMED, School of Life Sciences, Hasselt University, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
REVAL Rehabilitation Research Center, BIOMED Biomedical Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, Hasselt University, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
Revalidation and MS Center, 3900 Overpelt, Belgium
Clinical Center, Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 27 December 2017 / Published: 8 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multiple Sclerosis 2017)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [508 KB, uploaded 8 January 2018]   |  


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory auto-immune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Serum glucose alterations and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are reported in MS patients, and are commonly associated with the development of cardio-metabolic co-morbidities. We previously found that a subgroup of MS patients shows alterations in their lipoprotein profile that are similar to a pre-cardiovascular risk profile. In addition, we showed that a high-intensity exercise training has a positive effect on IGT in MS patients. In this study, we hypothesize that exercise training positively influences the lipoprotein profile of MS patients. To this end, we performed a pilot study and determined the lipoprotein profile before (controls, n = 40; MS patients, n = 41) and after (n = 41 MS only) 12 weeks of medium-intensity continuous training (MIT, n = 21, ~60% of VO2max) or high-intensity interval training (HIT, n = 20, ~100–200% of VO2max) using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Twelve weeks of MIT reduced intermediate-density lipoprotein particle count ((nmol/L); −43.4%; p < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c (mg/dL); −7.6%; p < 0.05) and VLDL size ((nm); −6.6%; p < 0.05), whereas HIT did not influence the lipoprotein profile. These results show that MIT partially normalizes lipoprotein alterations in MS patients. Future studies including larger patient and control groups should determine whether MIT can reverse other lipoprotein levels and function and if these alterations are related to MS disease progression and the development of co-morbidities. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; lipoproteins; cholesterol; training exercise multiple sclerosis; lipoproteins; cholesterol; training exercise

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jorissen, W.; Vanmierlo, T.; Wens, I.; Somers, V.; Van Wijmeersch, B.; Bogie, J.F.; Remaley, A.T.; Eijnde, B.O.; Hendriks, J.J.A. Twelve Weeks of Medium-Intensity Exercise Therapy Affects the Lipoprotein Profile of Multiple Sclerosis Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 193.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top