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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010120

Overview of the Microenvironment of Vasculature in Vascular Tone Regulation

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden Gelugor 11800, Penang, Malaysia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
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Abstract

Hypertension is asymptomatic and a well-known “silent killer”, which can cause various concomitant diseases in human population after years of adherence. Although there are varieties of synthetic antihypertensive drugs available in current market, their relatively low efficacies and major application in only single drug therapy, as well as the undesired chronic adverse effects associated, has drawn the attention of worldwide scientists. According to the trend of antihypertensive drug evolution, the antihypertensive drugs used as primary treatment often change from time-to-time with the purpose of achieving the targeted blood pressure range. One of the major concerns that need to be accounted for here is that the signaling mechanism pathways involved in the vasculature during the vascular tone regulation should be clearly understood during the pharmacological research of antihypertensive drugs, either in vitro or in vivo. There are plenty of articles that discussed the signaling mechanism pathways mediated in vascular tone in isolated fragments instead of a whole comprehensive image. Therefore, the present review aims to summarize previous published vasculature-related studies and provide an overall depiction of each pathway including endothelium-derived relaxing factors, G-protein-coupled, enzyme-linked, and channel-linked receptors that occurred in the microenvironment of vasculature with a full schematic diagram on the ways their signals interact. Furthermore, the crucial vasodilative receptors that should be included in the mechanisms of actions study on vasodilatory effects of test compounds were suggested in the present review as well. View Full-Text
Keywords: vascular tone; signaling mechanism pathways; pharmacological tool; endothelium-derived relaxing factors; enzyme-linked receptors; G-protein-coupled receptors; channel-linked receptors; blood vessels vascular tone; signaling mechanism pathways; pharmacological tool; endothelium-derived relaxing factors; enzyme-linked receptors; G-protein-coupled receptors; channel-linked receptors; blood vessels
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Loh, Y.C.; Tan, C.S.; Ch’ng, Y.S.; Yeap, Z.Q.; Ng, C.H.; Yam, M.F. Overview of the Microenvironment of Vasculature in Vascular Tone Regulation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 120.

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