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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1974; doi:10.3390/ijms18091974

Insights into the Diagnostic Potential of Extracellular Vesicles and Their miRNA Signature from Liquid Biopsy as Early Biomarkers of Diabetic Micro/Macrovascular Complications

Type 1 Diabetes Centre, Infectivology and Clinical Trials Research Department, Children’s Hospital Bambino Gesù, Viale San Paolo 15, 00146 Rome, Italy
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Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Abstract

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a heterogeneous population of small vesicles, consisting of a phospholipidic bilayer surrounding a soluble interior cargo. Almost all cell types release EVs, thus they are naturally present in all body fluids. Among the several potential applications, EVs could be used as drug delivery vehicles in disease treatment, in immune therapy because of their immunomodulatory properties and in regenerative medicine. In addition to general markers, EVs are characterized by the presence of specific biomarkers (proteins and miRNAs) that allow the identification of their cell or tissue origin. For these features, they represent a potential powerful diagnostic tool to monitor state and progression of specific diseases. A large body of studies supports the idea that endothelial derived (EMPs) together with platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) are deeply involved in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by micro- and macrovascular damages, including diabetes. Existing literature suggests that the detection of circulating EMPs and PMPs and their specific miRNA profile may represent a very useful non-invasive signature to achieve information on the onset of peculiar disease manifestations. In this review, we discuss the possible utility of EVs in the early diagnosis of diabetes-associated microvascular complications, specifically related to kidney. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles (EVs); endothelial-derived microparticles; platelet-derived microparticles; non-invasive biomarkers; miRNAs signature; diabetes associated complications; micro- and macrovascular damage; diabetic nephropathy extracellular vesicles (EVs); endothelial-derived microparticles; platelet-derived microparticles; non-invasive biomarkers; miRNAs signature; diabetes associated complications; micro- and macrovascular damage; diabetic nephropathy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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La Marca, V.; Fierabracci, A. Insights into the Diagnostic Potential of Extracellular Vesicles and Their miRNA Signature from Liquid Biopsy as Early Biomarkers of Diabetic Micro/Macrovascular Complications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1974.

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