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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1878; doi:10.3390/ijms18091878

Inflammatory Diseases and Growth: Effects on the GH–IGF Axis and on Growth Plate

Division of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Paediatrics, Azienda AUSL–IRCCS, Viale Risorgimento, 80, 42123 Reggio Emilia, Italy
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Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IGFs in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

This review briefly describes the most common chronic inflammatory diseases in childhood, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) that can be considered, as such, for the changes reported in the placenta and cord blood of these subjects. Changes in growth hormone (GH) secretion, GH resistance, and changes in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system are described mainly in relationship with the increase in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Changes in the growth plate are also reported as well as a potential role for microRNAs (miRNAs) and thus epigenetic changes in chronic inflammation. Many mechanisms leading to growth failure are currently known; however, it is clear that further research in the field is still warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone; growth; inflammation; NF-κB; IGF system; GH–IGF axis; cystic fibrosis; inflammatory bowel disease; juvenile idiopathic arthritis; intrauterine growth restriction bone; growth; inflammation; NF-κB; IGF system; GH–IGF axis; cystic fibrosis; inflammatory bowel disease; juvenile idiopathic arthritis; intrauterine growth restriction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cirillo, F.; Lazzeroni, P.; Sartori, C.; Street, M.E. Inflammatory Diseases and Growth: Effects on the GH–IGF Axis and on Growth Plate. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1878.

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